Structure and function of thyroid gland pdf

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structure and function of thyroid gland pdf

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Ides M. In thyrocytes, cell polarity is of crucial importance for proper thyroid function. Many intrinsic mechanisms of self-regulation control how the key players involved in thyroid hormone TH biosynthesis interact in apical microvilli, so that hazardous biochemical processes may occur without detriment to the cell. In some pathological conditions, this enzymatic complex is disrupted, with some components abnormally activated into the cytoplasm, which can lead to further morphological and functional breakdown. When iodine intake is altered, autoregulatory mechanisms outside the thyrocytes are activated. They involve adjacent capillaries that, together with thyrocytes, form the angiofollicular units AFUs that can be considered as the functional and morphological units of the thyroid. In response to iodine shortage, a rapid expansion of the microvasculature occurs, which, in addition to nutrients and oxygen, optimizes iodide supply.

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the base of your neck. It releases hormones that control metabolism—the way your body uses energy. The thyroid's hormones regulate vital body functions, including:. The thyroid gland is about 2-inches long and lies in front of your throat below the prominence of thyroid cartilage sometimes called the Adam's apple. The thyroid has two sides called lobes that lie on either side of your windpipe, and is usually connected by a strip of thyroid tissue known as an isthmus.

Introduction to Thyroid: Anatomy and Functions

Control of the Thyroid Gland pp Cite as. TSH is chemically related to the pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone LH and follicle-stimulating hormone FSH , as well as to placental chorionic gonadotropin CG. TSH is synthesized by thyrotropes of the anterior pituitary and stored in secretory granules. TSH is released into the circulation in a regulated manner, binds to thyroid cells and activates them to release thyroid hormones. Unable to display preview.

NCBI Bookshelf. The thyroid gland is a vital hormone gland: It plays a major role in the metabolism, growth and development of the human body. It helps to regulate many body functions by constantly releasing a steady amount of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. If the body needs more energy in certain situations — for instance, if it is growing or cold, or during pregnancy — the thyroid gland produces more hormones. This organ medical term: glandula thyreoidea is found at the front of the neck, under the voice box. It is butterfly-shaped: The two side lobes lie against and around the windpipe trachea , and are connected at the front by a narrow strip of tissue.

The Thyroid Gland

The thyroid , or thyroid gland , is an endocrine gland in the neck consisting of two connected lobes. The lower two thirds of the lobes are connected by a thin band of tissue called the thyroid isthmus. The thyroid is located at the front of the neck, below the Adam's apple. Microscopically, the functional unit of the thyroid gland is the spherical thyroid follicle , lined with follicular cells thyrocytes , and occasional parafollicular cells that surround a lumen containing colloid.

Thyroid Hormone Production and Function [Internet].

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