Mao zedong and chinas revolutions pdf
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- Cultural Revolution
- Little Red Book (红宝书) / Quotations from Chairman Mao (毛主席语录)
- Mao Zedong and China in the Twentieth-Century World
- Mao Zedong
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It was printed just over one billion times between and It achieved supreme importance as the ultimate guide to political action and moral behavior. First, the compilation was not a novel phenomenon in Chinese culture; collected sayings were frequently employed to spread the wisdom of religious or secular sages.
Second, the communist claim to represent the absolute truth of a scientific worldview encouraged utmost reverence for works in the Marxist-Leninist canon. The ingenious physical format of the Quotations presents a third distinctive feature. Fourth, and without doubt the most important reason, was the political environment. As the former propaganda establishment came under heavy attack for having hampered the spread of Mao Zedong Thought, the new leadership raised production numbers as tokens of revolutionary loyalty.
Finally, in the absence of a functioning party bureaucracy, the decontextualized quotations could be employed for highly diverse aims, and supplied skillful orators with a means of empowerment in local power struggles.
This object biography focusses on the latter three aspects and traces the contingent compilation process and publication history of the book in the Mao era. However, his influence was restricted to the style of study that he introduced in order to contain the impact of the Great Leap Forward among the largely rural-based rank and file of the army.
The catalogue was copied and came to constitute the core of the Little Red Book. The compilation process was similarly contingent.
In December at a work conference of the General Political Department of the PLA, the idea to compile a selection of Mao quotes in book form for use within the army was first presented. The delegates greeted the proposal with great enthusiasm and, as a result, a first draft was produced entitled Quotations from Chairman Mao. The first official edition of the Quotations from Chairman Mao appeared after several revisions in May The book contained a collection of quotations and assembled under 30 topics.
The Quotations were not sold officially. However, the enormous excess demand of requests from military and civilian units quickly overexerted the capabilities of the PLA Publishing House.
From September onward, printing molds were handed out to civilian publishing houses on occasion to release the pressure. Three chapters were added and the number of entries was expanded to quotations. For use in group study and recitation, the selected quotations were usually devoid of concrete political analysis, and instead stated moral truths to be learned by heart and 'applied' in everyday life. The fragments were not aimed at provoking critical inquiry or analysis and did not add up to a general introduction to Mao Zedong Thought.
He perceived the danger to the larger project of socialist construction in rendering the truth-value of its ideology obscure and thus prone to confusion and ridicule. The main reason why internal party criticism of the army edition proved futile was that Mao Zedong himself was rather fond of the book and obviously enjoyed his sage-like status.
The enormous demand for the Quotations had come as a surprise to the party leadership. By March , 28 million copies of the second edition had been printed and resources had been allocated for another 51 million copies.
As the content of the book consisted of previously published items only, it did not present riveting new insights. The attraction of the Quotations from Chairman Mao owed to form rather than content.
The decontextualized utterances eased memorization and group recitation, but also allowed for near indefinite recombination and thus provided the fundaments for creative exegesis.
The lack of a coherent philosophical framework permitted free association of the Quotations , even within contradictory arguments. Prior to the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution, its secret and hard-to-obtain nature only increased the appeal; later it became an indispensable badge of loyalty. As late as March the Little Red Book was not actively promoted outside the army. The Ministry of Culture specifically ordered that there was to be 'no notice within the papers, no advertising, no public displays, and no sale to foreigners.
With the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution in May , the former CCP propaganda and cultural institutions were accused of deliberately hindering the enhancement of Mao Zedong Thought.
A primary sin was the less than enthusiastic attitude in propagating the Little Red Book. The target number of the Quotations had been raised to million copies for the two-year period of and Transport of raw materials and finished products via railway or plane, including packaging and distribution costs, was conducted free of charge. Prices were set only slightly above manufacturing costs, thus turning the biggest book-hype in history into a financial losing deal.
By the end of the year, the publishing goals had long since been overfulfilled; in , the civilian party apparatus published no less than The year witnessed the climax with million officially published copies, and by statistically every Chinese had been supplied with a copy.
Besides the official print run, there were hundreds of unofficial editions printed by local organizations that did not appear in the above statistics. A domestic survey conducted in revealed no less than local editions.
The phenomenon of local editions reveals that at least in late and the Quotations not only served as a means of indoctrination and rote learning, but also as a means of empowerment. Victory in such battles was based on the skillful manipulation of quotations that were no longer aimed at a faithful application of Mao Zedong Thought but at gaining rhetorical advantages in struggles for political power.
The only way to regain control over the cult anarchy surrounding the Little Red Book was to rely on the coercive force of the PLA. Military rule was imposed starting in late by local military authorities who relied on mandatory group study of official Mao quotations to establish their authority. The focus was no longer study but guided application. China was to be turned into a 'great school' of the PLA, a term that concealed the brutality with which many former contestants for power were either banished or persecuted.
Under PLA guidance, standardized Mao quotes came to penetrate even the most mundane linguistic exchanges to secure the conformity of speech and conduct. In a climate were people were sentenced to long years in prison for having accidentally destroyed a Quotations volume, the book had to be carried and quoted at all times.
Thus at the time that the international acclaim of the Little Red Book as a symbol of youth rebellion and world revolution reached its apex in the summer of , in China it had completely lost its emancipating impact and had become of symbol of imposed worship to discipline the masses.
The print run decreased markedly and by the Quotations basically went out of print. Between and , a series of official directives ordered a thorough de-Maoification of the publishing industry.
A Central Propaganda Department circular dated 12 February officially announced the withdrawal from circulation of the Quotations from Chairman Mao. The Propaganda Department further described the Quotations as distortion of Mao Zedong Thought that had exerted a 'widespread and pernicious influence.
Thus by early over a hundred million copies of the Quotations were destroyed. Many citizens, who had suffered during the Cultural Revolutionary turmoil, followed suit and got rid of their volumes. This explains how, fifty years after its initial publication, original copies of the Little Red Book have once again become a scarce commodity, while cheap reprints cater to the nostalgic needs of a domestic and international audience. Aided with carefully chosen quotations from the Little Red Book , various Red Guard organizations engaged in violent factional battles during the mass phase of the Cultural Revolution.
Nanning, the capital of Guangxi province in southern China, was witness to particularly heavy fights between the opposing factions. The local Tianjin Daily created a catalogue of Mao quotes arranged according to certain topics which would later constitute the core of the Little Red Book. A domestic survey conducted in revealed no less than local editions of the Quotations existed, some of them published in such remote places as Hohhot in Inner Mongolia.
Until today one can find many copies mostly cheap contemporary reprints of the Quotations at flea markets and souvenir shops in Shanghai and other popular tourist locations throughout China. Apter, David and Tony Saich. Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic. Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, Cook, Alexander C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Leese, Daniel.
MacFarquhar, Roderick and Michael Schoenhals. In order to understand why so many ordinary people supported communism in China, it is necessary to look at personal records like diaries.
Although surveyed diary writing can be thought of as a form of cultural work, it was also a tool used by authors to learn about Chinese communism and their place in the new society.
Big-Character-Posters served as forms of propaganda throughout the Mao era, and were especially prominent during the Cultural Revolution. This biography examines the history and legacy of the big-character-poster, especially the ways they were used by individuals to spread ideology and serve as a form of mass mobilisation.
From Red Guards in the Cultural Revolution to students during the Umbrella Movement, big-character-posters are often seen as a bottom-up form of protest. However, oral histories and memoirs reveal that the process of writing them was more complicated, sometimes top-down and sometimes collectively authored.
The history of Chinese typewriting is one of experiments, prototypes, failures, and successes in the century-long quest to solve a complex design puzzle: How to fit thousands of characters on a desktop device? The history of Chinese typewriting is also a unique lens through which to examine the broader histories of Chinese mass mobilisation, science and technology, literacy, women, industry, and cultural work.
The citizens of socialist China were avid readers. Books—and translations of foreign novels in particular—were not just a favorite pastime, but also a means of education and cultural work. It aims to excavate the history of reading foreign books in socialist China. Entertainment fiction manuscripts from the Chinese Cultural Revolution are objects that were forbidden at the time as their very existence was against the prevailing ideology, yet they were extremely popular, in particular among young readers.
This biography presents this type of fiction as material object by tracing how they were produced and consumed, how both the material objects and the concrete texts were transformed and how these practices anticipated developments in the literary and cultural field commonly associated with the post-Mao era.
Revolutions often produce new types of art and culture, and often the most effective forms are those that can be worn, allowing supporters to literally embody the revolution.
They remain present in Reform Era China, where they have entered private collections, thus entering a very different world from that which they were originally designed for. The Cultural Revolution is inextricably bound up with images of uncountable numbers of propaganda posters, and Red Guards. Poster production reached a climax during the period, turning the event into a media spectacle. However, the new leadership realized that doing away with Mao was impossible.
Over the years, posters have been replaced by television and online propaganda. It played a key role in mobilizing the populace and heavily influenced contemporary rhetoric. Despite its towering success, with over one billion copies printed, the compilation history of the Little Red Book is full of unexpected twists and turns. From revolutionary weapon to sacred icon, the volume fulfilled multiple functions and presents a fascinating example of how objects may acquire different symbolic meanings in revolutionary politics.
Tianjin: Tianjin Daily Tianjin The local Tianjin Daily created a catalogue of Mao quotes arranged according to certain topics which would later constitute the core of the Little Red Book. Hohhot: Local Editions of the Quotations Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region A domestic survey conducted in revealed no less than local editions of the Quotations existed, some of them published in such remote places as Hohhot in Inner Mongolia.
Shanghai: Afterlife of the Quotations as Memorabilia Shanghai Until today one can find many copies mostly cheap contemporary reprints of the Quotations at flea markets and souvenir shops in Shanghai and other popular tourist locations throughout China. Lovell, Julia. Maoism: A Global History. London: Bodley Head,
Little Red Book (红宝书) / Quotations from Chairman Mao (毛主席语录)
Ideologically a Marxist—Leninist , his theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism. Mao was the son of a prosperous peasant in Shaoshan , Hunan. He had a Chinese nationalist and an anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, and was particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of and May Fourth Movement of In the following years he solidified his control through campaigns against landlords , suppression of "counter-revolutionaries" , " Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns " and through a psychological victory in the Korean War , which altogether resulted in the deaths of several million Chinese. From to , Mao played an important role in enforcing planned economy in China, constructing the first Constitution of the PRC , launching the industrialisation program , and initiating the " Two Bombs, One Satellite " project. In —, Mao launched the Sufan movement and the Anti-Rightist Campaign , with at least , people persecuted in the latter, most of whom were intellectuals and dissidents. In , he launched the Great Leap Forward that aimed to rapidly transform China's economy from agrarian to industrial , which led to the deadliest famine in history and the deaths of 15—55 million people between and
Mao Zedong and China in the Twentieth-Century World
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It was printed just over one billion times between and It achieved supreme importance as the ultimate guide to political action and moral behavior. First, the compilation was not a novel phenomenon in Chinese culture; collected sayings were frequently employed to spread the wisdom of religious or secular sages. Second, the communist claim to represent the absolute truth of a scientific worldview encouraged utmost reverence for works in the Marxist-Leninist canon.
Describes Mao Zedongs life and thought in relation to the Chinese revolution and twentieth-century history. Rebecca E. She co-translated and coedited with Lydia H.
Whether one views Mao Zedong as a hero or a demon, the "Great Helmsman" was, undoubtedly, a pivotal figure in the history of twentieth-century China, a man whose life and writings provide a fascinating window on the Chinese experience from the s onward.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Whether one views Mao Zedong as a hero or a demon, the "Great Helmsman" was undoubtedly a pivotal figure in the history of 20th-century China. The first part of this volume is an introductory essay that traces the history of 20th-century China, from Mao's early career up to the Chinese Communist Party's victory in , through three decades of revolution, to Mao's death I
The Cultural Revolution was launched in China in by Communist leader Mao Zedong in order to reassert his authority over the Chinese government. In the s, Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong came to feel that the current party leadership in China, as in the Soviet Union , was moving too far in a revisionist direction, with an emphasis on expertise rather than on ideological purity. Chairman Mao Zedong gathered a group of radicals, including his wife Jiang Qing and defense minister Lin Biao, to help him attack current party leadership and reassert his authority. A personality cult quickly sprang up around Mao, similar to that which existed for Josef Stalin , with different factions of the movement claiming the true interpretation of Maoist thought.
Whether one views Mao Zedong as a hero or a demon, the "Great Helmsman" The Continuous Revolutions of Mao Zedong. Timothy Cheek. Pages PDF.