Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation pdf

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maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation pdf

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Nutrition for Pregnant and Lactating Women

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Conference proceedings were published in a supplement to The Journal of Nutrition. Nutritional needs are increased during pregnancy and lactation for support of fetal and infant growth and development along with alterations in maternal tissues and metabolism. Total nutrient needs are not necessarily the sum of those accumulated in maternal tissues, products of pregnancy and lactation and those attributable to the maintenance of nonreproducing women. Maternal metabolism is adjusted through the elaboration of hormones that serve as mediators, redirecting nutrients to highly specialized maternal tissues specific to reproduction i. It is most unlikely that the heightened nutrient needs for successful reproduction can always be met from the maternal diet. Requirements for energy-yielding macronutrients increase modestly compared with several micronutrients that are unevenly distributed among foods.

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. This book represents the edited remarks delivered by approximately 50 investigators at a workshop on maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation that was held in The first section is devoted to physiology and biochemistry. Naismith and Hytten document the evidence that the human fetus is largely protected against effects of a poor maternal diet, and discuss some of the mechanisms for this protection, such as hormonal changes, storage during times of plenty, and active transport of nutrients to the fetus.

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Healthy pregnant or breastfeeding women need to get between to additional calories per day to meet their energy needs and support the healthy growth of their baby. During pregnancy or while breastfeeding your baby, be sure to eat a variety of healthy foods. The essential nutrients below will help you and your baby thrive. They're found in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, beans, dairy products, and lean meats. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth, and plays an important role in the healthy functioning of the circulatory, muscular, and nervous systems. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should get 1, mg of calcium a day.

Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You Need

Metrics details. Monotonous and less diversified diets are associated with micronutrient deficiency. Evidence on maternal dietary intakes during pregnancy is essential to achieve the global nutrition target and reduce maternal and child mortalities.


Nutrition and pregnancy refers to the nutrient intake, and dietary planning that is undertaken before, during and after pregnancy. Nutrition of the fetus begins at conception. For this reason, the nutrition of the mother is important from before conception probably several months before as well as throughout pregnancy and breast feeding. An ever-increasing number of studies have shown that the nutrition of the mother will have an effect on the child, up to and including the risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes throughout life.

Pregnancy is a demanding physiological state. In India, it is observed that diets of women from the low socioeconomic groups are essentially similar during prepregnant, pregnant and lactating periods. Consequently, there is widespread maternal malnutrition leading to high prevalence of low birth weight infants and very high maternal mortality. Additional foods are required to improve weight gain in pregnancy Kg and birth weight of infants about 3 Kg. It is hence important to ensure provision of extra food and healthcare to pregnant and lactating women. The daily diet of a woman should contain an additional calories, 0. Some micronutrients are specially required in extra amounts during these physiological periods.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In the intervening period, there have been advancements in evidence on nutrients, dietary patterns, nutritional supplements, and other nutrition-based topics relevant to pregnancy and lactation. The workshop included, but was not limited to, discussion of the current state of the science on requirements for specific nutrients, relationships between intake during pregnancy and outcomes for the mother and child, alignment of dietary and supplement intake with existing recommendations, factors that affect lactation and human milk composition, and equity in access to nutritional care. This Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief highlights key points made by participants and is not intended to provide a comprehensive account of the workshop. To set the stage for the workshop, the chair of the workshop planning committee, Anna Maria Siega-Riz of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, highlighted some of the major conclusions from the two previous Institute of Medicine reports. For instance, it was concluded that diet alone could meet the requirements for all known nutrients during pregnancy except iron IOM, and that U.

Nutrition During Pregnancy, Lactation and Early Childhood and its Implications for Maternal and Long-Term Child Health: The Early Nutrition.

Physiological adjustments of pregnancy

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