Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology pdf
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- Accelerating Bayesian inference for evolutionary biology models
- Models of Molecular Evolution and Phylogeny
- Inference of Phylogenetic Trees
- Bayesian inference in phylogeny
Johan A. Nylander, Fredrik Ronquist, John P.
Metrics details. Bayesian phylogenetic inference holds promise as an alternative to maximum likelihood, particularly for large molecular-sequence data sets. We have investigated the performance of Bayesian inference with empirical and simulated protein-sequence data under conditions of relative branch-length differences and model violation. With simulated 7-taxon protein-sequence datasets, Bayesian posterior probabilities are somewhat more generous than bootstrap proportions, but do not saturate.
Accelerating Bayesian inference for evolutionary biology models
Study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms has been of interest to scientists for over years. The earliest attempts at inferring evolutionary relatedness relied solely on observable species characteristics.
Modern molecular techniques, however, have made available an abundance of DNA sequence data, which can be used to study these relationships. Today, it is common to consider the information contained in both types of data in order to obtain robust estimates of evolutionary histories. Estimation of the phylogenetic relationships among a collection of organisms given genetic data for these organisms can be divided into two distinct problems. The first is to define the particular criterion by which we compare the fit of a particular phylogenetic hypothesis to the observed data.
The second is to search the space of possible phylogenies for the particular tree or trees that provide the best fit to the data. In this chapter, we give an overview of these two problems, with particular emphasis on the maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood criteria for comparing trees.
Techniques for searching the space of trees for optimal phylogenies under these criteria are also discussed. Throughout the chapter, we use two data sets to illustrate the main ideas.
We begin by defining some of the commonly used terminology, and by providing a careful description of the data used in phylogenetic analysis. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
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Models of Molecular Evolution and Phylogeny
Study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms has been of interest to scientists for over years. The earliest attempts at inferring evolutionary relatedness relied solely on observable species characteristics. Modern molecular techniques, however, have made available an abundance of DNA sequence data, which can be used to study these relationships. Today, it is common to consider the information contained in both types of data in order to obtain robust estimates of evolutionary histories. Estimation of the phylogenetic relationships among a collection of organisms given genetic data for these organisms can be divided into two distinct problems. The first is to define the particular criterion by which we compare the fit of a particular phylogenetic hypothesis to the observed data.
Inference of Phylogenetic Trees
Phylogenetic reconstruction is a fast-growing field that is enriched by different statistical approaches and by findings and applications in a broad range of biological areas. Fundamental to these are the mathematical models used to describe the patterns of DNA base substitution and amino acid replacement. These may become some of the basic models for comparative genome research. We discuss these models, including the analysis of observed DNA base and amino acid mutation patterns, the concept of site heterogeneity, and the incorporation of structural biology data, all of which have become particularly important in recent years. We also describe the use of such models in phylogenetic reconstruction and statistical methods for the comparison of different models.
Bayesian inference in phylogeny
Christophe J. Ford Doolittle, Emmanuel J. Owing to the exponential growth of genome databases, phylogenetic trees are now widely used to test a variety of evolutionary hypotheses. Nevertheless, computation time burden limits the application of methods such as maximum likelihood nonparametric bootstrap to assess reliability of evolutionary trees. As an alternative, the much faster Bayesian inference of phylogeny, which expresses branch support as posterior probabilities, has been introduced. However, marked discrepancies exist between nonparametric bootstrap proportions and Bayesian posterior probabilities, leading to difficulties in the interpretation of sometimes strongly conflicting results. As an attempt to reconcile these two indices of node reliability, we apply the nonparametric bootstrap resampling procedure to the Bayesian approach.
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