Introduction and scope of biochemistry pdf
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Scope of Biochemistry
Roberts, J. Scott; Essential chemistry for biochemists. Essays Biochem 31 October ; 61 4 : — Within every living organism, countless reactions occur every second. These reactions typically occur more rapidly and with greater efficiency than would be possible under the same conditions in the chemical laboratory, and while using only the subset of elements that are readily available in nature. Despite these apparent differences between life and the laboratory, biological reactions are governed by the same rules as any other chemical reaction.
Biochemistry , study of the chemical substances and processes that occur in plants , animals , and microorganisms and of the changes they undergo during development and life. It deals with the chemistry of life, and as such it draws on the techniques of analytical , organic, and physical chemistry , as well as those of physiologists concerned with the molecular basis of vital processes. All chemical changes within the organism—either the degradation of substances, generally to gain necessary energy, or the buildup of complex molecules necessary for life processes—are collectively called metabolism. These chemical changes depend on the action of organic catalysts known as enzymes , and enzymes, in turn, depend for their existence on the genetic apparatus of the cell. It is not surprising, therefore, that biochemistry enters into the investigation of chemical changes in disease , drug action, and other aspects of medicine , as well as in nutrition , genetics , and agriculture. The term biochemistry is synonymous with two somewhat older terms: physiological chemistry and biological chemistry. Those aspects of biochemistry that deal with the chemistry and function of very large molecules e.
Biochemistry emerged as a separate discipline when scientists combined biology with organic, inorganic, or physical chemistry and began to study such topics as how living things obtain energy from food, the chemical basis of heredity, and what fundamental changes occur in disease. Biochemistry includes the sciences of molecular biology; immunochemistry; neurochemistry; and bioinorganic, bioorganic, and biophysical chemistry. Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the incredible complexity of life. Scope of Biochemistry A.
Biochemistry, Scope and Importance
Biochemistry or biological chemistry , is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become successful at explaining living processes through these three disciplines. Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed through biochemical methodology and research. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions, and interactions of biological macromolecules , such as proteins , nucleic acids , carbohydrates , and lipids. They provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. These can be inorganic for example, water and metal ions or organic for example, the amino acids , which are used to synthesize proteins. The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine , nutrition and agriculture.
History of biochemistry
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- Это вовсе не трюк. Да я вообще слова ему не сказал о деньгах. Я попросил оказать мне личную услугу. И он согласился поехать.
Смотрите! - сдавленным голосом сказала Мидж, махнув рукой в сторону окна. Фонтейн посмотрел на вспышки огней в куполе шифровалки. Глаза его расширились.