Anatomy and physiology terminology pdf
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- 2.10: Learn Medical Terminology and Human Anatomy
- 2.10: Learn Medical Terminology and Human Anatomy
- Anatomical Terminology
- 1.4 Anatomical Terminology
2.10: Learn Medical Terminology and Human Anatomy
Words in science are often used in different ways from ordinary English. Completely different meanings even occur in different branches of physiology, e.
As a student, it is easy to despair! But the meanings of words are very precise in science: if you don't understand them, or if you use them casually, you won't be able to study efficiently, and you won't get good marks. This glossary is for browsing in, testing yourself, and learning about words that catch your eye. Stop and read wherever you may have doubts or interest. Also of course it is a place to look up words you come across and don't understand. But it is very selective. You need both an English dictionary and a scientific or medical dictionary too.
Many words that you think you understand OK, you may find aren't used quite how you thought! This glossary concentrates on words that often cause confusion, especially in the basic sciences physics, chemistry and mathematics that are the foundation of physiology. You don't need to understand everything, but the more you understand, the easier it will be to learn more. You are often expected in exams to explain the meanings of words: practise doing it! It is usually simpler and clearer to say 'horizontal axis', since most people have to stop to think which axis 'abscissa' means.
Acceleration is detected in man largely by the labyrinths. Acclimation is sometimes used specifically to mean adaptation to a single changed factor as under laboratory conditions. Used in several senses: 1. Attenuation or absence of a response when a stimulus is applied slowly e. NB this is distinct from adaptation, but is often seen in the same systems.
Adjustment of focus of the eye. Cumulative toxins are ones that are absorbed but not excreted, for which it is the total dose over a prolonged period that matters rather than the level of exposure at any one time. Accuracy is limited firstly by the ability of a measuring system to distinguish different conditions resolution and secondly by its ability to relate the conditions correctly to a standard calibration. The two considerations must not be confused. A high resolution instrument giving stable readings and sensitive to small changes may nevertheless be completely inaccurate if not adequately calibrated.
Accuracy cannot usually be greater than the resolution of a measurement, except in special circumstances e. An acidotic condition may be capable of being restored to normal acid-base balance by increasing respiratory ventilation to reduce the CO 2 content of the body respiratory acidosis , or it may require retention or injection of HCO 3 - metabolic acidosis. Disturbances are lessened in the short term by numerous pH buffer systems. Influences affecting blood pH are altered absorption, metabolism and respiration, and disturbances affecting the control systems.
Action potentials occur spontaneously or as all-or-none or frequency coded reactions to stimulation. Sodium spikes are brief ca. A compound action potential is an extracellular recording of the combined effect of action potentials in many cells. A catalyst reduces the activation energy. Requiring energy: e. Doing something: e. Effective: E. This requires energy, and can occur by linkage of carrier mediated transport to a process providing energy, such as the hydrolysis of ATP or the downhill movement of another substance.
The state of doing something: E. In chemistry a parameter similar to concentration, that determines the rate at which reactions take place.
The ratio of activity to concentration is the 'activity coefficient', usually less than 1 because of molecular interactions in the solution that interfere with reactions. Visual acuity depends on light level, and is highest at the fovea.
Somatosensory acuity varies markedly over the body surface and may be measured by the separation required to identify that the skin is being touched at two points. Rather ambiguous. An 'acute experiment' is one in which an animal is anaesthetised at the start and eventually killed before recovering consciousness. Useful if the changes are of interest, and a large or variable background level means that the record would otherwise go 'off-scale'.
The transition between what is and is not recorded is characterised by a 'cut-off frequency', below which signals are severely attenuated by more than a factor of 2 in energy. Some AC-coupled circuits are characterised by a 'time constant', where the return to baseline following a step change of input level is exponential.
AC-coupling introduces distortion of signals that have frequency components around or below the cut-off frequency. Distinguish carefully from both accommodation and habituation. Light and dark adaptation are the processes of adjustment of the eye to different light levels whether fast or slowly changing. Acts at both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, and mimics some of the effects of sympathetic nerve activation. Adrenergic fibres release noradrenaline, while alpha and beta adrenergic receptors bind adrenaline, noradrenaline and other adrenergic agonists.
Aerobic conditions are ones in which O 2 is present. However, 'effect' can be a verb too, meaning 'to produce', e. Note that it is true to say 'salt affects urine production' but untrue to say 'salt effects urine production' it does exactly the opposite! Be careful! A last complication is that 'affect' is a technical noun in psychology, meaning 'mood'. It is even true that lithium salts have effects that affect affect: clinical depression is an affective disorder for which lithium can provide effective treatment, though unfortunately it seldom effects a permanent cure.
Afferent nerves or action potentials are usually those travelling towards the central nervous system. Afferent vessels carry fluids towards a specified organ or tissue.
Affinity of a receptor for an agonist may be expressed by the agonist concentration at which half of the receptors are bound to agonist molecules the dissociation constant for the complex: KD , or by -log 10 of this quantity, or by its reciprocal. For example, agonist muscles pull parts of the skeleton in the same direction. Agonist drugs or chemicals bind to the same receptors, producing the same effects. These are often expressed in a computer program. The sneeze is more familiar: pepper either does or doesn't lead to a sneeze.
A little pepper doesn't lead to a 'small' sneeze, though it may lead to fewer sneezes. This isn't to say that sneezes are always identical: you can stifle a sneeze and, for example, reduce the noise it makes. These alterations are nothing to do with the stimulus that caused the sneeze, however. Exactly parallel things are true for action potentials. All-or-none responses usually involve some form of 'positive feedback'.
This affects physiological processes largely through the reduced atmospheric pressure, which falls exponentially by ca. Oxygen percentage in inspired air remains constant ca. Effects of altitude are often studied by simulation in a chamber with reduced pressure. Respiration is affected noticeably at m 13,ft and severely at m 20,ft.
Samples of alveolar air can be taken at the end of expiration after dead-space air has been expelled end-tidal samples. Alveolar air is normally approximately in equilibrium with arterial blood, and therefore has approximately the same partial pressures of O 2 and CO 2 as arterial blood. Note that the conditions for a particular tissue may be different from the ambient conditions. This may be active requiring energy, as in an electrical amplifier or passive, as in the amplification of movement that may be achieved where a muscle pulls on a lever.
Quantitatively, 'amplification' is the ratio of the two signals. It can often be defined in several different ways, and it is important to specify what your definition is. The same thing goes for measurements you make of a response amplitude, for example an action potential: always say how you are measuring it e. This may be general anaesthesia, in which case the subject is unconscious, or local anaesthesia affecting sensation from just a part of the body.
Local anaesthesia may be due to influence of an anaesthetic drug or to nerve trauma, etc.. Continuously variable. An analogue parameter can have any value within a range, e. This is as opposed to a digital parameter, which can only have certain perhaps integer values, e.
Analogue numbers are approximated in computers by digital numbers. A drug similar to another drug or to a hormone, etc. Numerical methods, by contrast, use computers to solve problems in specific cases. NB negative ions move towards an anode positive electrode in solution: hence the seemingly confusing nomenclature. In solution, cations move away from and anions towards an anode, both contributing to current flow away from the anode.
It is nearly always used for the inverse of logarithms to the base This varies during the pulse between systolic pressure maximum and diastolic pressure minimum. It also varies along the length of arteries due to the effects of hydrostatic pressure and especially in small or obstructed arteries the resistance of the arteries to flow.
Standard clinical measurements are normally made in a large artery at the same height as the heart. Resistance vessel. Major site of control of blood flow to tissues, via innervation, chemosensitivity and thermal sensitivity of the smooth muscle of the arteriole walls. Constriction increases the resistance to flow in the arterioles. Note that it does not directly increase the pressure within the arterioles a common misapprehension , since they are open at both ends.
Indeed, constriction generally reduces pressure at the distal capillary end of the arterioles, because blood flow through the capillaries is reduced and the capillary pressure therefore becomes closer to venous pressure.
2.10: Learn Medical Terminology and Human Anatomy
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists , zoologists , and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms, suffixes , and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm.
Anatomists and health care providers use terminology that can be bewildering to the uninitiated; however, the purpose of this language is not to confuse, but rather to increase precision and reduce medical errors. Or is it at the base of the hand? Is it on the palm-side or back-side?
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1.4 Anatomical Terminology
In our previous courses, you may have noticed a number of complex anatomy and physiology terms getting tossed around. Our complete medical terminology list will help you learn some of the most common anatomical and surgical terms by looking at prefixes, suffixes, and roots. Here are a few of the most common. There are also a number of positional and directional medical terms that are not suffixes or prefixes, but are instead standalone words. Here is a short medical billing terminology list of some of the most valuable. You might recognize some of them.
Anatomists and health care providers use terminology that can be bewildering to the uninitiated. However, the purpose of this language is not to confuse, but rather to increase precision and reduce medical errors. Or is it at the base of the hand? Is it on the palm-side or back-side?