Term paper of coevolution between plant and pollinators pdf
File Name: term paper of coevolution between plant and pollinators .zip
- Coevolution Between Food-Rewarding Flowers and Their Pollinators
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, later enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds , most often by an animal or by wind. Pollination often occurs within a species.
Extremely long proboscides of insect flower visitors have been regarded as an example of a coevolutionary arms race, assuming that these insects act as efficient pollinators for their nectar host plants. However, the effect of proboscis length on generalized or specialized flower use remains unclear and the efficiency of butterfly pollination is ambiguous. Neotropical Hesperiidae feature a surprising variation of proboscis length, which makes them a suitable study system to elucidate the role of extremely long-proboscid insects in plant-pollinator networks. The results of this study show that skippers with longer proboscides visit plant species with deep-tubed flowers to take up food, but do not pollinate them. Skippers equipped with extremely long proboscides seldom include short-tubed flowers in their diet nor visit more plant species than those with shorter proboscides. Our observations indicate that the extremely long-proboscid skippers steal nectar from their preferred nectar host plants, Calathea sp. Finally, we discuss the impact of nectar robbery by these butterflies on their nectar host plants and their legitimate pollinators, euglossine bees.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution through the process of natural selection. The term sometimes is used for two traits in the same species affecting each other's evolution, as well as gene-culture coevolution. Charles Darwin mentioned evolutionary interactions between flowering plants and insects in On the Origin of Species Although he did not use the word coevolution, he suggested how plants and insects could evolve through reciprocal evolutionary changes. Naturalists in the late s studied other examples of how interactions among species could result in reciprocal evolutionary change. Beginning in the s, plant pathologists developed breeding programs that were examples of human-induced coevolution. Development of new crop plant varieties that were resistant to some diseases favored rapid evolution in pathogen populations to overcome those plant defenses.
Coevolution , the process of reciprocal evolutionary change that occurs between pairs of species or among groups of species as they interact with one another. The activity of each species that participates in the interaction applies selection pressure on the others. In a predator-prey interaction, for example, the emergence of faster prey may select against individuals in the predatory species who are unable to keep pace. Thus, only fast individuals or those with adaptations allowing them to capture prey using other means will pass their genes to the next generation. Coevolution is one of the primary methods by which biological communities are organized. It can lead to very specialized relationships between species, such as those between pollinator and plant , between predator and prey, and between parasite and host. It may also foster the evolution of new species in cases where individual populations of interacting species separate themselves from their greater metapopulations for long periods of time.
Urban and suburban landscapes can be refuges for biodiversity of bees and other pollinators. Public awareness of declining pollinator populations has increased interest in growing plants that provide floral resources for bees. We quantified bee visitation to 72 species of flowering woody landscape plants across urban and suburban sites in Kentucky and southern Ohio, USA, sampling and identifying the bee assemblages associated with 45 of the most bee-attractive species. We found strong plant species effects and variation in seasonal activity of particular bee taxa, but no overall differences in extent of bee visitation or bee genus diversity between native and non—native species, trees and shrubs, or early-, mid-, and late-season blooming plants. Horticulturally-modified varieties of Hydrangea , Prunus , and Rosa with double petals or clusters of showy sterile sepals attracted few bees compared to related plants with more accessible floral rewards.
Download full-text PDF Darwin's mechanistic model for plant–pollinator coevolution From the essay Creation by Law by Wallace ().
Pollination in Plants. Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther, which is the male part of the flower, to the stigma, which is on the female part. This process normally precedes fertilization. It is an important process in the reproduction of plants without which sexual reproduction will not take place.
Metrics details. The concept of coevolution was first developed by Darwin, who used it to explain how pollinators and food-rewarding flowers involved in specialized mutualisms could, over time, develop long tongues and deep tubes, respectively. He famously predicted that Angraecum sesquipedale , a long-spurred Malagasy orchid, must be pollinated by a hawkmoth with an exceptionally long tongue.
Coevolution Between Food-Rewarding Flowers and Their Pollinators
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The term Coevolution introduced by Ehrlich and Raven () was A highly specialized relationship between plant and pollinator the nectar accumulated in the flowers covered with butter paper bags was collected with.