Approaches and methods in language teaching 3rd pdf

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English Language Teaching

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Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Summary of approaches and methods in language teaching 1. There are three different theories about the nature of language teaching : 1.

Structural view: the view considers to a language as a system of related elements. To be mastering in structural elements in target language, is noted. This view claims that proficiency in grammatical, phonological and etc. Functional view: the view considers to language as s vehicle for the expression of functional meaning.

This theory emphasis on semantic and communicative aspects of language. Interactional views: the view sees language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transaction between individuals. Theory of language learning Theory of language learning associated with a method at the level of approach may emphasize either one or both dimensions: process-oriented and condition-orients.

Process-oriented: the theories build on learning processes, such as habit formation, generalization and so on. Condition-oriented: the theories build on the nature of human and physical context in which language learning take place. The syllabus: all methods involves decisions concerning the selection of language items such as words, sentence patterns or etc , that are used within a course or method, that is syllabus.

Types of teaching and learning activities: different philosophies at the level of approach may be reflected both in the use of different kinds of activities and different uses for particular activity types. Learner roles: different methods have different contribution of learner implicitly or explicitly.

According to Johnson and Paulston there are some terms about learner roles in language learning: a. Learners plan their own program for language learning so they accept the responsibility.

Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. Learners learn of each other in a group. Learners teach each other in a group. Learners learn from the teacher from the students and from the other sources. Teacher roles Teacher roles in methods related to the followings issues: a.

The type of function that the teacher has for example director, counselor and etc. Degrees of control that the teacher has over the learning take place in the class. Degree of responsibility of teacher for determining what is taught. The interactional patters that develop between teacher and students. The role of instructional materials The role of instructional materials within a method is base on the goals of materials, the form of materials, the relations of materials to other sources of input and the ability of teachers.

Procedure Procedure is the last level within a method that encompasses three dimensions: a. The use of teaching activities such as drills information gap activity and so on. The ways of which particular activity will use for practicing language. Unit 4 The audiolingual method Based on behaviorist belief The Audio-Lingual Method is based on the behaviorist belief that language learning is the acquisition of a set of correct language habits.

The learner repeats patterns until able to produce them spontaneously. Once a given pattern — for example, subject-verb-prepositional phrase — is learned, the speaker can substitute words to make new sentences.

The teacher directs and controls students' behavior, provides a model, and reinforces correct responses. Approach Theory of language The theory of language under audiolingualism to be known as structural linguistics. Structural linguistics developed in part as a reaction to traditional grammar. The reaction against traditional grammar move toward positivism and empiricism. It means that gathers data from the people then make rules.

Theory of language In the audiolingual approach define that more practical interest in new patterns , phonetics and phonology and etc emerge when there is no new language in the society such as people in army who encouraged to learn another language. Theory of learning The theory of learning under audiolingualism to be known as behaviorism. Based on behaviorism there are stimulus, response and reinforcement for learning.

Stimulus serves to behavior, response triggered by stimulus, and reinforcement is behavior to occur again and become a habit. There are number of learning principles also as below: 1. Foreign language learning is based on habit formation. Language skills are learned spoken before written form. Grammar is learned inductive rather deductive.

Teacher a language involves teaching culture of people in target language. Design Objectives There are two ranges as short range and long range objectives in audiolingual.

In short range objectives there are immediate objectives such as teach listening comprehension, accurate pronunciation, and ability to use symbol of writing. Long range objectives must be language as native speaker uses it. The syllabus Audiolingualism is a linguistic or structural based, so as we know the starting points in linguistic syllabus are phonology, morphology, and syntax of language that need to arranged as syllabus of audilingual approach.

Forming contrastive analysis, find differences and similarities between mother tongue and target language can help to find difficulties points in learning learners will encounter. Learning accurate pronunciation and intonation are emphasized. Sort of drills used in audiolingual are as follow: 1. Repetition: the students repeat an utterance aloud as soon as hear it.

Inflection: one word in an utterance appears in another from when repeated. Replacement: one word in an utterance replace by another. Restatement: the dialogue repeat by three students. Completion: Students hear an utterance that is no complete then repeat it in complete form. Transposition: change in word orders is necessary when a word is added. Expansion: the added word takes a certain place in the sequence.

Contraction: a simple word stands for a clause. Transformation: a sentence change into negative, interrogative or tense and etc. Integration: Two utterances integrate into one. Rejoinder: the student makes an appropriate answer for a given utterance. Restoration: put the words in order and tell the tense. Learner roles According to behaviorist learning theory, teaching focuses on external process rather than internal process. Learners should be directed by teacher and techniques to produce correct responses.

Professor Jack C Richards

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Communicative language teaching CLT , or the communicative approach , is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study. Language learners in environments utilizing CLT techniques, learn and practice the target language through the interaction with one another and the instructor, the study of "authentic texts" those written in the target language for purposes other than language learning , and through the use of the language both in class and outside of class. Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment, and to focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language. According to CLT, the goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language.

Language Teacher Research Methods

Richards and Theodore S. Bailey and David Nunan. Rodgers University of Hawaii Manoa.

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In , I was made an honorary professor in the Faculty of Education and Social Work at the University of Sydney, Australia, where I give public lectures in TESOL, run a teaching methodology workshop and provide consultancy to academic staff and research students. I am a frequent speaker at conferences and workshops for language teachers, and visits some 12 countries every year. I have written over 60 articles and 20 books.

Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching

Research Methods in Language and Education pp Cite as. Research methods and approaches to study language teachers have been aligned with theories underpinning language teacher education. Qualitative data collection strategies e. Ensuing methods were primarily narrative and based in teacher research. These inquiries not only allowed teachers to examine their own classrooms, but helped them transform themselves at a personal and sociopolitical level. Nevertheless, both 1 how to understand and view language teacher knowledge and 2 how to conceptualize language teacher learning, present methodological challenges in studying these phenomena.

Grammar translation method was the most popular and widely used method for language teaching between the ages of to This method was used for teaching and learning latin and it places a lot of emphasis on learning vocabulary and grammar. Like the first edition, it surveys the major approaches and methods in language teaching, such as grammar translation, audiolingualism, communicative language teaching, and the natural approach. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Cambridge As in previous editions, both major and alternative approaches and methods are surveyed, with the section on current communicative approaches updated to include new material on CLIL, text and genre-based teaching.

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Communicative language teaching


  • Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and lbilirics, actu31 3nd observed experience of the nature of learning and organi-. Leon N. - 16.05.2021 at 07:14