History and development of islamic education in nigeria pdf
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Almajiranci is a system of Islamic education practiced in northern Nigeria and it is also the name for a young boy who is taught within this system, the system is called Almajiranci , the male gender seeking Islam knowledge is called Almajiri , female gender is Almajira , and the plural is almajirai. The system encourages parents to leave parental responsibilities to the attached Islamic school. Colloquially , the term has expanded to refer to any young person who begs on the streets and does not attend secular school. Almajirai are children, usually from poor rural backgrounds, who leave their hometowns to study Islamic learning with malammai, teachers of the Quran. Approximately 8.
Islamic Education in West and Central Africa
Education has played a central role in Islam since early times, owing in part to the centrality of scripture and its study in the Islamic tradition. Before the modern era, education would begin at a young age with study of Arabic and the Quran. Some students would then proceed to training in tafsir Quranic exegesis and fiqh Islamic jurisprudence , which was seen as particularly important. For the first few centuries of Islam, educational settings were entirely informal, but beginning in the 11th and 12th centuries, the ruling elites began to establish institutions of higher religious learning known as madrasas in an effort to secure support and cooperation of the ulema religious scholars.
Madrasas soon multiplied throughout the Islamic world, which helped to spread Islamic learning beyond urban centers and to unite diverse Islamic communities in a shared cultural project. Sciences of the former type flourished for several centuries, and their transmission formed part of the educational framework in classical and medieval Islam.
In some cases, they were supported by institutions such as the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, but more often they were transmitted informally from teacher to student. Working women learned religious texts and practical skills primarily from each other, though they also received some instruction together with men in mosques and private homes. In Arabic three terms are used for education. Another term is Tarbiyah from the root of raba , which means spiritual and moral growth based on the will of God.
The centrality of scripture and its study in the Islamic tradition helped to make education a central pillar of the religion in virtually all times and places in the history of Islam. Education would begin at a young age with study of Arabic and the Quran, either at home or in a primary school, which was often attached to a mosque.
For the first few centuries of Islam, educational settings were entirely informal, but beginning in the 11th and 12th centuries, the ruling elites began to establish institutions of higher religious learning known as madrasas in an effort to secure support and cooperation of the ulema. From the 8th century to the 12th century, the primary mode of receiving education in the Islamicate world was from private tutors for wealthy families who could afford a formal education, not madrasas.
These private instructors were well known scholars who taught their students Arabic, literature, religion, mathematics, and philosophy. Madrasas were devoted principally to the study of law, but they also offered other subjects such as theology, medicine, and mathematics.
Madrasa education taught medicine and pharmacology primarily on the basis of humoral pathology. In order to aid in medical efforts to fight disease and sickness, Ibn Sina also known as Avicenna , wrote the Canon of Medicine.
Muslims distinguished disciplines inherited from pre-Islamic civilizations, such as philosophy and medicine, which they called "sciences of the ancients" or "rational sciences", from Islamic religious sciences. They date the transformation of the madrasa of al-Qarawiyyin into a university to its modern reorganization in The madrasa is one of the relics of the Fatimid caliphate.
The Fatimids traced their descent to Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and named the institution using a variant of her honorific title Al-Zahra the brilliant. Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas described the Islamic purpose of education as a balanced growth of the total personality through training the spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings and bodily senses such that faith is infused into the whole personality.
Seyyed Hossein Nasr stated that, while education does prepare humankind for happiness in this life, "its ultimate goal is the abode of permanence and all education points to the permanent world of eternity". According to the Nahj al-Balagha , there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge merely heard and that which is absorbed. The former has no benefit unless it is absorbed. The heard knowledge is gained from the outside and the other is absorbed knowledge means the knowledge that raised from nature and human disposition, referred to the power of innovation of a person.
The Quran is the optimal source of knowledge. In general, minority religious groups often have more education than a country's majority religious group, even more so when a large part of that minority are immigrants.
There is a perception of a large gender gap in majority Islam countries, but this is not always the case. One of the largest roles that women played in education in Islam is that of muhaddithas.
Muhaddithas are women who recount the stories, teachings, actions, and words of Muhammad adding to the isnad by studying and recording hadiths. Some of the most influential Muhaddithas are Zaynab bint al-Kamal who was known for her extensive collection of hadiths, A'isha bint Abu Bakr was Muhammad's third wife and she studied hadith from the early age of four. As a result, female participation in hadith dissemination also grew.
The Quaraouiyine Mosque, founded in , is the most famous mosque of Morocco and attracted continuous investment by Muslim rulers. As for the nature of its curriculum, it was typical of other major madrasahs such as al-Azhar and Al Quaraouiyine, though many of the texts used at the institution came from Muslim Spain Al Quaraouiyine began its life as a small mosque constructed in C.
Significantly, the institutional adjustments of the madrasahs affected both the structure and the content of these institutions. In terms of structure, the adjustments were twofold: the reorganization of the available original madaris and the creation of new institutions.
This resulted in two different types of Islamic teaching institutions in al-Maghrib. The first type was derived from the fusion of old madaris with new universities. For example, Morocco transformed Al-Qarawiyin A. Higher education has always been an integral part of Morocco, going back to the ninth century when the Karaouine Mosque was established.
The madrasa , known today as Al Qayrawaniyan University, became part of the state university system in Madrasa , in modern usage, the name of an institution of learning where the Islamic sciences are taught, i. A madrasa is a college of Islamic law.
The madrasa was an educational institution in which Islamic law fiqh was taught according to one or more Sunni rites: Maliki , Shafi'i , Hanafi , or Hanbali. It was supported by an endowment or charitable trust waqf that provided for at least one chair for one professor of law, income for other faculty or staff, scholarships for students, and funds for the maintenance of the building.
Madrasas contained lodgings for the professor and some of his students. Subjects other than law were frequently taught in madrasas, and even Sufi seances were held in them, but there could be no madrasa without law as technically the major subject. In studying an institution which is foreign and remote in point of time, as is the case of the medieval madrasa, one runs the double risk of attributing to it characteristics borrowed from one's own institutions and one's own times.
Thus gratuitous transfers may be made from one culture to the other, and the time factor may be ignored or dismissed as being without significance. One cannot therefore be too careful in attempting a comparative study of these two institutions: the madrasa and the university. But in spite of the pitfalls inherent in such a study, albeit sketchy, the results which may be obtained are well worth the risks involved.
In any case, one cannot avoid making comparisons when certain unwarranted statements have already been made and seem to be currently accepted without question.
The most unwarranted of these statements is the one which makes of the "madrasa" a "university". It has been a destination for students and scholars of Islamic sciences and Arabic studies throughout the history of Morocco. There were also other religious schools like the madras of ibn yusuf and other schools in the sus. This system of basic education called al-ta'lim al-aSil was funded by the sultans of Morocco and many famous traditional families.
After independence, al-qarawiyin maintained its reputation, but it seemed important to transform it into a university that would prepare graduates for a modern country while maintaining an emphasis on Islamic studies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Islam and education. Texts Foundations. Culture and society. Related topics.
In Richard C. Martin ed. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press Kindle edition. Cambridge University Press. Teaching and Learning the Sciences in Islamicate Societies. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publisher. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Medieval Islamic Medicine. Georgetown University Press. Retrieved December 7, Journal of Early Modern History. Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Berkshire Publishing Group.
The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. Brill, , p. Encountering the World of Islam. Authentic, , p. I: Universities in the Middle Ages. They consider institutions like al-Qarawiyyin to be higher education colleges of Islamic law where other subjects were only of secondary importance. The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning. In John L. Esposito ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Training and Education in Islam. Islamic College for Advanced Studie. Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Kluwer Academic publication. Pew Research Center. Retrieved Women and the Transmission of Religious Knowledge in Islam.
Islam placed a high value on education, and, as the faith spread among diverse peoples, education became an important channel through which to create a universal and cohesive social order. By the middle of the 9th century, knowledge was divided into three categories: the Islamic sciences, the philosophical and natural sciences Greek knowledge , and the literary arts. Early Muslim education emphasized practical studies, such as the application of technological expertise to the development of irrigation systems, architectural innovations , textiles, iron and steel products, earthenware, and leather products; the manufacture of paper and gunpowder; the advancement of commerce; and the maintenance of a merchant marine. After the 11th century, however, denominational interests dominated higher learning , and the Islamic sciences achieved preeminence. Greek knowledge was studied in private, if at all, and the literary arts diminished in significance as educational policies encouraging academic freedom and new learning were replaced by a closed system characterized by an intolerance toward scientific innovations, secular subjects, and creative scholarship. This denominational system spread throughout eastern Islam from Transoxania roughly, modern-day Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and southwest Kazakhstan to Egypt, with some 75 schools in existence between about and The system of education in the Muslim world was unintegrated and undifferentiated.
Education in Islam
Islam has, from its inception, placed a high premium on education and has enjoyed a long and rich intellectual tradition. Knowledge 'ilm occupies a significant position within Islam, as evidenced by the more than references to it in Islam's most revered book, the Koran. The importance of education is repeatedly emphasized in the Koran with frequent injunctions, such as "God will exalt those of you who believe and those who have knowledge to high degrees" , "O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge" , and "As God has taught him, so let him write"
108 Pages, Grade: Junior secondary school
The following terms used frequently throughout the research proceedings were defined within the context of this research. Islamiyyah schools: Islamic schools which are semi-formal with sitting arrangement, syllabus and their subjects are mainly Islamic. Almajiranchi: Acts conducted by the Almajiri. Ilmi: Knowledge in Arabic language. Madrasa: The same as Makarantun Zaure- Advanced traditional Islamic schools which trained adults mostly in the veranda of a house, Mosque or under shed of a tree. The pilot testing showed the reliability coefficient of 0.
Si. Si! - вскрикивала она в интервалах между его рывками и впивалась ногтями ему в спину, стараясь ускорить его движения. Все смешалось в ее голове - лица бесчисленных мужчин, склонявшиеся над ней, потолки гостиничных номеров, в которые она смотрела, мечты о том, что когда-нибудь все это кончится и она заведет детей… Внезапно, без всякого предупреждения, тело немца выгнулось, замерло и тут же рухнуло на. Это. - подумала она удивленно и с облегчением и попыталась выскользнуть из-под .
Смотрите внимательно, - предупредил Смит.