Political parties and democracy in pakistan pdf
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- Pakistan's Political Parties
- The Novel Changes in Pakistan’s Party Politics: Analysis of Causes and Impacts
- The Novel Changes in Pakistan’s Party Politics: Analysis of Causes and Impacts
Alternating between strong military rulers and weak civilian governments, Pakistan has failed to develop healthy political institutions, a lasting democracy, an impartial judiciary, or a thriving economy. Since its birth in August , Pakistan has grappled with an acute sense of insecurity in the midst of a continuing identity crisis, writes Ahmed Rashid, a Pakistan analyst, in the book Descent into Chaos. Race and Ethnicity. As a result, he argued, "Pakistan is far from developing a consistent [form] of government, with persisting political polarization PDF along three major, intersecting fault lines: between civilians and the military, among different ethnic and provincial groups, and between Islamists and secularists.
Pakistan's Political Parties
The country is a federal parliamentary republic in which provincial governments enjoy a high degree of autonomy and residuary powers. Executive power is vested with the national cabinet which is headed by the prime minister Imran Khan ; , who works coherently along with the bicameral parliament and the judicature. The head of state is the president who is elected by the electoral college for a five-year term.
Arif Alvi is currently the president of Pakistan The president was a significant authority until the 18th amendment , passed in , stripped the presidency of its major powers. Since then, Pakistan has been shifted from a Semi-presidential system to a purely parliamentary government. Since the amendment, the president's powers include the grant to pardon, and the ability to suspend or moderate any sentence passed by any court or authority. The Government consists of three branches: executive, legislative and judicial.
The Executive branch consists of the Cabinet and is led by the Prime Minister. It is totally independent of the legislative branch that consists of a bicameral parliament. Pakistan is a multiparty democracy where several political parties compete for seats in the National and Provincial assemblies. However, as an aftermath of the Fall of Dhaka in , a two-party system was inculcated between the Peoples Party and Muslim League.
From s to s, several coups were staged that overthrew democratic regimes. However, after the resignation of President Pervez Musharraf in , a sharp line has been drawn between the Military and politics and Pakistan is moving closer to becoming a liberal democracy. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Pakistan a " hybrid regime " in The president of Pakistan, in keeping with the constitutional provision that the state religion is Islam, must be a Muslim.
Elected for a five-year term by an Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members of the provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for re-election.
But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office due to incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament. The president generally acts on the advice of the prime minister but has important residual powers.
One of the most important of these powers—a legacy of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq —is the president's power to dissolve the National Assembly "in his discretion where, in has arisen in which the Government of the Federation cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and an appeal to the electorate is necessary.
Despite this most recent power-stripping, the President remains the ex officio chair of the National Security Council , as per the National Security Act The prime minister is appointed by the members of the National Assembly through a vote. The prime minister is assisted by the Federal Cabinet, a council of ministers whose members are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister.
The Federal Cabinet comprises the ministers, ministers of state, and advisers. As of early , there were thirty-three ministerial portfolios: commerce; communications; culture; defence; defence production; education; environment; finance and economic affairs; food and agriculture; foreign affairs; health; housing; information and broadcasting; interior; Kashmiri affairs and Northern Areas; law and justice; local government; minority affairs; narcotics control; parliamentary affairs; petroleum and natural resources production; planning and development; railways; religious affairs; science and technology; social welfare; special education; sports; state and frontier regions; tourism; water and power; women's development; and youth affairs.
The bicameral federal legislature consists of the Senate upper house and National Assembly lower house. Pakistan's democracy has no recall method. However, past governments have been dismissed for corruption by the President's invocation of Article 58 of the Constitution.
The President's power to dismiss the Prime Minister and dissolve the National Assembly was removed by the Thirteenth Amendment and partially restored by the Seventeenth Amendment. The Senate is a permanent legislative body with equal representation from each of the four provinces, elected by the members of their respective provincial assemblies.
The chairman of the Senate, under the constitution, is next in line to act as president should the office become vacant and until such time as a new president can be formally elected. Both the Senate and the National Assembly can initiate and pass legislation except for finance bills. Only the National Assembly can approve the federal budget and all finance bills. In the case of other bills, the president may prevent passage unless the legislature in joint sitting overrules the president by a majority of members of both houses present and voting.
Unlike the National Assembly, the Senate cannot be dissolved by the President. Members of the National Assembly are elected by universal adult suffrage formerly twenty-one years of age and older but the seventeenth amendment changed it to eighteen years of age. Seats are allocated to each of the four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Islamabad Capital Territory on the basis of population. National Assembly members serve for the parliamentary term, which is five years, unless they die or resign sooner, or unless the National Assembly is dissolved.
Although the vast majority of the members are Muslim, about 5 percent of the seats are reserved for minorities, including Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs. Elections for minority seats are held on the basis of separate electorates at the same time as the polls for Muslim seats during the general elections. The chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court may remain in office until age sixty-five: now 68 years and this is also another clause of seventeenth amendment.
The Federal Shariat Court FSC of Pakistan is a court which has the power to examine and determine whether the laws of the country comply with Shari'a law. It consists of 8 Muslim judges appointed by the President of Pakistan after consulting the Chief Justice of this Court, from amongst the serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or a High Court or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court.
Of the eight judges, three are required to be Ulema who are well versed in Islamic law. The judges hold office for a period of three years, which may eventually be extended by the President. If any part of the law is declared to be against Islamic law, the government is required to take necessary steps to amend such law appropriately. The court also exercises revisional jurisdiction over the criminal courts, deciding Hudood cases. The decisions of the court are binding on the High Courts as well as subordinate judiciary.
The court appoints its own staff and frames its own rules of procedure. Ever since its establishment in , the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan has been the subject of criticism and controversy in the society. Created as an islamisation measure by the military regime and subsequently protected under the controversial 8th Amendment, its opponents question the very rationale and utility of this institution.
It is stated that this court merely duplicates the functions of the existing superior courts and also operates as a check on the sovereignty of Parliament. The composition of the court, particularly the mode of appointment of its judges and the insecurity of their tenure, is taken exception to, and it is alleged, that this court does not fully meet the criterion prescribed for the independence of the judiciary. That is to say, it is not immune to pressures and influences from the Executive.
In the past, this court was used as a refuge for the recalcitrant judges. And whereas some of its judgments, particularly the ones which relying on the Islamic concept of equity, justice and fair play, expanded and enlarged the scope and contents of individual's rights were commended, others that tend to restrict the rights of women, are severely criticised and deplored.
In every province, there is one High Court. In 18th Amendment, judges appointments are proposed by a Parliamentary Commission. Judges of the provincial high courts were, previously appointed The seventeenth amendment give these powers to the president, previously Prime minister exercised them by the president after consultation with the chief justice of the Supreme Court, as well as the governor of the province and the chief justice of the high court to which the appointment is being made.
High courts have original and appellate jurisdiction. In addition, there are special courts and tribunals to deal with specific kinds of cases, such as drug courts, commercial courts, labour courts, traffic courts, an insurance appellate tribunal, an income tax appellate tribunal, and special courts for bank offences.
There are also special courts to try terrorists. Appeals from special courts go to high courts except for labour and traffic courts, which have their own forums for appeal. Appeals from the tribunals go to the Supreme Court.
A further feature of the judicial system is the office of Mohtasib Ombudsman , which is provided for in the constitution.
The office of Mohtasib was established in many early Muslim states to ensure that no wrongs were done to citizens. Appointed by the president, the Mohtasib holds office for four years; the term cannot be extended or renewed. The Mohtasib's purpose is to institutionalise a system for enforcing administrative accountability, through investigating and rectifying any injustice done to a person through maladministration by a federal agency or a federal government official.
The Mohtasib is empowered to award compensation to those who have suffered loss or damage as a result of maladministration. Excluded from jurisdiction, however, are personal grievances or service matters of a public servant as well as matters relating to foreign affairs, national defence, and the armed services.
This institution is designed to bridge the gap between administrator and citizen, to improve administrative processes and procedures, and to help curb misuse of discretionary powers. Pakistan has been ruled by both democratic and military governments. The first decade was marred with political unrest and instability, with frequent collapses of civilian democratic governments that eventually led to the military coup.
Since till present now, Pakistan has been governed by various of both right-wing conservative governments and left-wing socialistic oriented governments, while neither far-right and far-left had failed to achieve enough majority to claim the exclusive mandate. From to as many as seven Prime Ministers of Pakistan either resigned or were ousted. Civilian, yet socialist-oriented autocratic, rule continued from to under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, but he was deposed by General Zia-Ul-Haq.
She was the youngest woman ever to be elected the Head of Government and the first woman to be elected as the Head of Government of a Muslim country. Her government was followed by that of Nawaz Sharif, and the two leaders alternated until the military coup by General Pervez Musharraf in From the resignation of President Rafiq Tarar in , to his own resignation in , Musharraf was the President of Pakistan.
In , Asif Ali Zardari was elected president. Officially a federal republic , Pakistan has had a long history of alternating periods of electoral democracy and authoritarian military government. However, a majority of Pakistan's Heads of State and Heads of Government have been elected civilian leaders. General elections were held in October After monitoring the elections, the Commonwealth Observer Group stated in conclusion:.
On 22 May , the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group re-admitted Pakistan into the Commonwealth , formally acknowledging its progress in returning to democracy. Kashmir Azad Kashmir has its own constitution, the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Interim Constitution Act of , and a locally chosen parliamentary form of government, as described above.
The constitution allows for many of the structures that comprise a self-governing state, including a legislative assembly elected through periodic elections, a prime minister who commands the majority in the assembly, an indirectly elected president, an independent judiciary, and local government institutions. The latter body, presided over by the Prime Minister of Pakistan , exercises paramount authority over the AJK Legislative Assembly , which cannot challenge decisions of the council.
The council is under the numerical control of the federal government in Islamabad, as in addition to the Pakistani prime minister it comprises six other federal ministers, the minister of Kashmir affairs as the ex-officio member, the prime minister of Azad Kashmir, and six Azad Kashmir members elected by the Legislative Assembly. Its decisions are final and not subject to judicial review.
Thus, Azad Kashmir remains for all intents and purposes under Pakistan's strict control, exercising no real sovereignty of its own. From the outset, the institutional set up in the territory was designed to ensure Pakistan's control of the area's affairs. Pakistan is subdivided into four provinces, one territory, and one capital territory. Each province has a Provincial Assembly, a directly elected legislature.
Members are elected for five-year terms. Each Assembly elects a Chief Minister, who then selects the ministers of his or her cabinet. Pakistan's provinces are divided into districts called zillas in local languages counterpart to a county in US or UK terminology. A zilla is further subdivided into tehsils roughly equivalent to a borough in an integrated multi-tier federated systemic context, such as the one to be found in Montreal Canada, and Birmingham UK, announcement or known as arrondissements in French context.
The Novel Changes in Pakistan’s Party Politics: Analysis of Causes and Impacts
Transformation in a political system regarding number of parties is a significant phenomenon which creates ample grounds for scholarly discourse. The Pakistani political system witnessed a change in the party politics where it transformed from a two-party system to a three-party system in a relatively short time period. Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf emerged on the political scene and after just two elections was able to form a government. Challenging the status quo political forces through organizational mobilization, ideology, counter narrative, and redeeming civil military balance, PTI successfully achieved the systemic transformation in political structure of Pakistan. The change in a complex political fabric was attempted across various spectrums of party dynamics and electoral mechanics both at the federal and provincial legislatures employing diverse strategies. The challenge at hand is the translation of those mechanics of change into political realities and policy orientations while dealing with structural intricacies, domestic compulsions of economy, and external relations. PTI also lacks experience managing external relations which has implications for both the important stakeholders.
Short title, extent and commencement:. In this Order, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context:. Formation of political parties, etc:. Constitution of political parties:. Membership of political parties:.
Pakistan's short history as a country has been very turbulent. Fighting among the provinces--as well as a deep-rooted conflict that led to a nuclear stand-off with India—prevented Pakistan from gaining real stability in the last five decades. It oscillates between military rule and democratically elected governments, between secular policies and financial backing as a "frontline" state during the Cold War and the war against terrorism. Recent declared states of emergency and the political assassination of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto indicate a continuing trend of economic and political instability. When Pakistan became a country on August 14th, , to form the largest Muslim state in the world at that time. The creation of Pakistan was catalyst to the largest demographic movement in recorded history. Nearly seventeen million people-Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs-are reported to have moved in both directions between India and the two wings of Pakistan the eastern wing is now Bangladesh.
The Novel Changes in Pakistan’s Party Politics: Analysis of Causes and Impacts
A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals. Political parties have become a major part of the politics of almost every country, as modern party organizations developed and spread around the world over the last few centuries. Some countries have only one political party while others have dozens, but it is extremely rare for a country to have no political parties. Parties are important in the politics of autocracies as well as democracies , though usually democracies have more political parties than autocracies.
Researchers use interviews, surveys, data, and ethnography to illuminate the internal dynamics and motivations of these groups and the mechanisms through which they create policy and influence state and society. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus.
New Book Alerts My Cart. Pakistan's general elections marked the second successful transfer of power from one elected civilian government to another—a remarkable achievement considering the country's history of dictatorial rule.
The Emergence of Pakistan
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