Water hygiene and sanitation pdf

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water hygiene and sanitation pdf

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This content cannot be displayed without JavaScript. Please enable JavaScript and reload the page. To provide or improve access to potable water, there are several possible options, depending on the situation: — Implementing temporary potable water transport, storage and distribution in densely populated areas where there is no water supply system, as long as required. If the authorities decide to close a contaminated water source, ensure that another source of potable water is accessible. In densely populated settings, bulk water chlorination Section 3.

Water, sanitation and hygiene for populations at risk

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease , especially through the fecal—oral route.

A range of sanitation technologies and approaches exists. Some examples are community-led total sanitation , container-based sanitation , ecological sanitation , emergency sanitation , environmental sanitation, onsite sanitation and sustainable sanitation.

A sanitation system includes the capture, storage, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta and wastewater. This is referred to as the "sanitation value chain" or "sanitation economy". Several sanitation "levels" are being used to compare sanitation service levels within countries or across countries. Sanitation is a global development priority and the subject of Sustainable Development Goal 6.

There are some variations on the use of the term "sanitation" between countries and organizations. Sanitation is not an easy concept to understand. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. Sanitation includes all four of these technical and non-technical systems: Excreta management systems, wastewater management systems included here are wastewater treatment plants , solid waste management systems as well as drainage systems for rainwater, also called stormwater drainage.

Another example of what is included in sanitation is found in the handbook by Sphere on "Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response" which describes minimum standards in four "key response sectors" in humanitarian response situations. One of them is "Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion" WASH and it includes the following areas: Hygiene promotion, water supply , excreta management, vector control , solid waste management and WASH in disease outbreaks and healthcare settings.

Hygiene promotion is seen by many as an integral part of sanitation. The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council defines sanitation as "The collection, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta , domestic wastewater and solid waste, and associated hygiene promotion. Despite the fact that sanitation includes wastewater treatment, the two terms are often used side by side as "sanitation and wastewater management". Another definition is in the DFID guidance manual on water supply and sanitation programmes from [15].

It encompasses too the re-use and ultimate disposal of human excreta. The term environmental sanitation is used to cover the wider concept of controlling all the factors in the physical environment which may have deleterious impacts on human health and well-being. In developing countries, it normally includes drainage, solid waste management, and vector control, in addition to the activities covered by the definition of sanitation.

Sanitation can include personal sanitation and public hygiene. Personal sanitation work can include handling menstrual waste , cleaning household toilets , and managing household garbage. Public sanitation work can involve garbage collection, transfer and treatment municipal solid waste management , cleaning drains, streets, schools, trains, public spaces , community toilets and public toilets , sewers , operating sewage treatment plants , etc.

The overall purposes of sanitation are to provide a healthy living environment for everyone, to protect the natural resources such as surface water , groundwater , soil , and to provide safety, security and dignity for people when they defecate or urinate.

It is derived from the human right to an adequate standard of living. Effective sanitation systems provide barriers between excreta and humans in such a way as to break the disease transmission cycle for example in the case of fecal-borne diseases. One of the main challenges is to provide sustainable sanitation , especially in developing countries. Maintaining and sustaining sanitation has challenges that are technological, institutional and social in nature.

Sanitation infrastructure has to be adapted to several specific contexts including consumers' expectations and local resources available. Sanitation technologies may involve centralized civil engineering structures like sewer systems , sewage treatment , surface runoff treatment and solid waste landfills.

These structures are designed to treat wastewater and municipal solid waste. Sanitation technologies may also take the form of relatively simple onsite sanitation systems. This can in some cases consist of a simple pit latrine or other type of non-flush toilet for the excreta management part.

Providing sanitation to people requires attention to the entire system, not just focusing on technical aspects such as the toilet , fecal sludge management or the wastewater treatment plant. All need to be thoroughly considered.

The benefits to society of managing human excreta are considerable, for public health as well as for the environment. For developing countries, the economic costs of inadequate sanitation is a huge concern.

For example, according to a World Bank study, economic losses due to inadequate sanitation to The Indian economy are equivalent to 6. Availability of toilet at home on the other hand, positively contributes to economic well-being of women as it leads to an increase in literacy and participation in labor force.

The term sanitation is connected with various descriptors or adjectives to signify certain types of sanitation systems which may deal only with human excreta management or with the entire sanitation system, i.

In , JMP defined a new term: "basic sanitation service". This is defined as the use of improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households.

A lower level of service is now called "limited sanitation service" which refers to use of improved sanitation facilities that are shared between two or more households. The term "dry sanitation" is not in widespread use and is not very well defined. It usually refers to a system that uses a type of dry toilet and no sewers to transport excreta. Often when people speak of "dry sanitation" they mean a sanitation system that uses urine-diverting dry toilet UDDTs.

Environmental sanitation encompasses the control of environmental factors that are connected to disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise pollution control. Lack of sanitation refers to the absence of sanitation. In practical terms it usually means lack of toilets or lack of hygienic toilets that anybody would want to use voluntarily.

The result of lack of sanitation is usually open defecation and open urination but this is of less concern with associated serious public health issues. Onsite sanitation or on-site sanitation is defined as "a sanitation system in which excreta and wastewater are collected and stored or treated on the plot where they are generated". Examples are pit latrines no treatment and septic tanks primary treatment of wastewater.

On-site sanitation systems are often connected to fecal sludge management FSM systems where the fecal sludge that is generated onsite is treated at an offsite location. Wastewater sewage is only generated when piped water supply is available within the buildings or close to them. A related term is a decentralized wastewater system which refers in particular to the wastewater part of on-site sanitation.

Similarly, an onsite sewage facility can treat the wastewater generated locally. A relatively high level of sanitation service is now called "safely managed sanitation" by the JMP definition. This is basic sanitation service where in addition excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Wastewater management consists of collection, wastewater treatment be it municipal or industrial wastewater , disposal or reuse of treated wastewater.

The latter is also referred to as water reclamation. Sanitation systems in urban areas of developed countries usually consist of the collection of wastewater in gravity driven sewers, its treatment in wastewater treatment plants for reuse or disposal in rivers, lakes or the sea. In developing countries most wastewater is still discharged untreated into the environment.

Alternatives to centralized sewer systems include onsite sanitation , decentralized wastewater systems , dry toilets connected to fecal sludge management. Sewers are either combined with storm drains or separated from them as sanitary sewers. Combined sewers are usually found in the central, older parts or urban areas.

Heavy rainfall and inadequate maintenance can lead to combined sewer overflows or sanitary sewer overflows , i. Industries often discharge wastewater into municipal sewers, which can complicate wastewater treatment unless industries pre-treat their discharges. Disposal of solid waste is most commonly conducted in landfills , but incineration, recycling , composting and conversion to biofuels are also avenues.

In the case of landfills, advanced countries typically have rigid protocols for daily cover with topsoil, where underdeveloped countries customarily rely upon less stringent protocols. Daily cover also minimizes odor emissions and reduces windblown litter.

Likewise, developed countries typically have requirements for perimeter sealing of the landfill with clay-type soils to minimize migration of leachate that could contaminate groundwater and hence jeopardize some drinking water supplies.

For incineration options, the release of air pollutants , including certain toxic components is an attendant adverse outcome. Recycling and biofuel conversion are the sustainable options that generally have superior lifecycle costs, particularly when total ecological consequences are considered.

Sanitation within the food industry means the adequate treatment of food-contact surfaces by a process that is effective in destroying vegetative cells of microorganisms of public health significance, and in substantially reducing numbers of other undesirable microorganisms, but without adversely affecting the food or its safety for the consumer U.

Similarly, in Japan, food hygiene has to be achieved through compliance with food sanitation law. In the food and biopharmaceutical industries, the term "sanitary equipment" means equipment that is fully cleanable using clean-in-place CIP and sterilization-in-place SIP procedures: that is fully drainable from cleaning solutions and other liquids.

The design should have a minimum amount of deadleg, or areas where the turbulence during cleaning is insufficient to remove product deposits. The surface is usually electropolished to an effective surface roughness of less than 0. In many settings, provision of sanitation facilities alone does not guarantee good health of the population. Studies have suggested that the impact of hygiene practices have as great an impact on sanitation related diseases as the actual provision of sanitation facilities.

Hygiene promotion is therefore an important part of sanitation and is usually key in maintaining good health. It usually involves a participatory approach of engaging people to take responsibility of WASH services and infrastructure including its operation and maintenance. The three key elements of promoting hygiene are; mutual sharing of information and knowledge, the mobilization of affected communities and the provision of essential material and facilities.

Sanitation is a necessity for a healthy life. Lack of sanitation can result in feces-contaminated drinking water and cause life-threatening forms of diarrhea to infants. In , infectious diarrhea resulted in about 0. Approximately two billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide.

It happens in environments where there is no effective separation of humans and feces due to lack of sanitation. When analyzing environmental samples, various types of indicator organisms are used to check for fecal pollution of the sample. Commonly used indicators for bacteriological water analysis include the bacterium Escherichia coli abbreviated as E.

With regards to samples of soil , sewage sludge , biosolids or fecal matter from dry toilets , helminth eggs are a commonly used indicator. With helminth egg analysis, eggs are extracted from the sample after which a viability test is done to distinguish between viable and non viable eggs.

The viable fraction of the helminth eggs in the sample is then counted. Climate change can have negative impacts on existing sanitation services in several ways: damage and loss of services from floods and reduced carrying capacity of waters receiving wastewater. They affect the operation of water supply , storm drainage and sewerage infrastructure, and wastewater treatment plants. Technical solutions for climate change adaption for sanitation systems can include separate systems storm water pipes kept separate from sewer pipes , backflow valves on sewers backflow prevention devices , dry toilets instead of flush toilets, locating sanitation infrastructure outside of flood zones if possible.

Water and sanitation services contribute to greenhouse gas emissions.

Water, sanitation and hygiene for populations at risk

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease , especially through the fecal—oral route. A range of sanitation technologies and approaches exists. Some examples are community-led total sanitation , container-based sanitation , ecological sanitation , emergency sanitation , environmental sanitation, onsite sanitation and sustainable sanitation. A sanitation system includes the capture, storage, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta and wastewater.

The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. Naughton, C. Introduction to the Importance of Sanitation. In: J.


Suggested citation. Water, sanitation, hygiene and health: a primer for health professionals. Safe water, sanitation and hygiene (collectively known as WASH​) are crucial for human health ads//01/pdf, accessed​.


4.6 Strategies for water, hygiene and sanitation

Supplemental Material and Table. Provision of basic water, sanitation, and hygiene WASH services in health-care facilities is gaining increased attention, given growing acceptance of its importance to the maternal and newborn quality of care agenda and the universal health coverage framework. One quarter of PHCs did not have access to a combination of basic water and sanitation WatSan services More than a half of the three lower health service level facility types lacked basic WatSan services. National health facility monitoring systems need to be urgently strengthened for tracking the progress and addressing gaps in basic WASH services in health facilities in Indonesia.

4.6 Strategies for water, hygiene and sanitation

The history of modern food safety regulations can be traced back to the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act, both passed in by Theodore Roosevelt into law. Food Safety Training Requirements. Know the food sanitation rules. See full list on ehs. If the food spends too much time in the danger zone, the pathogens will increase in number to a point where the food will make people sick.

A safely managed sanitation service is defined as an improved sanitation facility which is not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed in situ or transported and treated off-site. Global target: of people have access to safe water. On track to reach target: With current rate of progress, target will be reached by year:. Indicator 6. Download snapshot. Country or area , SDG region, world 6.


WASH interventions such as safe water, storage for portable water, latrines for sanitation and soap for hygiene, bath and hand washing. ResearchGate Logo.


4.6 Strategies for water, hygiene and sanitation

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