Diabetes and its types pdf
File Name: diabetes and its types .zip
- Guide for Authors
- Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
- What is diabetes
- Guide for Authors
Guide for Authors
Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Insulin is that key. You can think of it as not having a key.
You can think of it as having a broken key. Both types of diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. That increases the risk of diabetes complications. If not managed, type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to symptoms such as:. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may also experience irritability, mood changes , and unintentional weight loss.
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Good glucose management significantly reduces the risk of developing numbness and tingling in someone with type 1 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association ADA. Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop quickly, typically over the course of several weeks.
Once known as juvenile diabetes, this type usually develops in childhood or adolescence. The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin. It may have something to do with genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to viruses.
Research into autoimmune diseases is ongoing. People with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. Other genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. When you develop type 2 diabetes, your pancreas will try to compensate by producing more insulin. Because your body is unable to effectively use insulin, glucose will accumulate in your bloodstream. Ninety to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. About Among those 65 years old and older, the rate reaches Only 25 out of every 10, Americans under 20 years old had been diagnosed with diabetes in Men and women get diabetes at roughly the same rate.
However, prevalence rates are higher among certain races and ethnicities. American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Mexican Americans have the highest prevalence of diabetes among both men and women. In general, Black and Hispanic populations have higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites or non-Hispanic Asians. Among non-Hispanic Asian Americans, people with Asian Indian ancestry have higher rates of diabetes than people with Chinese or Filipino ancestry.
The primary test used to diagnose both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is known as the A1C, or glycated hemoglobin, test. This blood test determines your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months.
Your doctor may draw your blood or give you a small finger prick. The higher your blood sugar levels have been over the past few months, the higher your A1C level will be. Test results are expressed as a percentage. An A1C level of 6. If you have this condition or trait, then your doctor will have to use a different test. Some people take injections into soft tissue, such as the stomach, arm, or buttocks, several times per day.
Other people use insulin pumps. Insulin pumps supply a steady amount of insulin into the body through a small tube. Blood sugar testing is an essential part of managing type 1 diabetes, because levels can go up and down quickly.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed and even reversed with diet and exercise alone, but many people need extra support. Monitoring your blood sugar is an essential part of type 2 diabetes management too. Your doctor may recommend testing your blood sugar occasionally or more frequently.
If your blood sugar levels are high, your doctor may recommend insulin injections. Nutritional management is an important part of life for people with diabetes. If you have type 1 diabetes, work with your doctor to identify how much insulin you may need to inject after eating certain types of food.
For example, carbohydrates can cause blood sugar levels to quickly increase in people with type 1 diabetes. Learn more about type 1 diabetes and diet. People with type 2 diabetes need to focus on healthy eating. Weight loss is often a part of type 2 diabetes treatment plans, so your doctor may recommend a low-calorie meal plan. This could mean reducing your consumption of animal fats and junk food. However, it may be possible to lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes through these lifestyle changes:.
Type 1 diabetes is far less common than type 2, and the latter is more commonly diagnosed in adults. Type 1. Diabetes can cause long-term damage, from foot to nerve complications.
The three P's of diabetes refer to the most common symptoms of the condition. Those are polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia. High blood glucose can…. The three types are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes…. When you have diabetes, you must carefully monitor your carbohydrate intake. This includes sugars found in desserts. The glycemic index can help people with diabetes decide which fruits and vegetables to include in their diet.
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Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus , disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar glucose in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease and small blood vessels microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease , as well as diseases of the nerves. Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose.
What is diabetes
Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications JDC is a journal for health care practitioners and researchers, that publishes original research about the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. JDC also publishes articles on physiological and molecular aspects of glucose homeostasis. The primary purpose of JDC is to act as a source of information usable by diabetes practitioners and researchers to increase their knowledge about mechanisms of diabetes and complications development, and promote better management of people with diabetes who are at risk for those complications.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. That's because it used to start almost always in middle- and late-adulthood.
Guide for Authors
When any of these things happens, the body is unable to get sugar from the blood into the cells. That leads to high blood sugar levels. Glucose, the form of sugar found in your blood, is one of your main energy sources. A lack of insulin or resistance to insulin causes sugar to build up in your blood. This can lead to many health problems.
Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.
PDF | Traditionally, diabetes is classified as type 1 and type 2 based upon the phenotypic insulin or reduce its effectiveness for maintaining euglycemia. Thus.