Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality pdf

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inclusive fitness theory and eusociality pdf

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PLoS Biol 13 4 : e

Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. Hamilton—inclusive fitness theory—provides the most fundamental and general explanation for the evolution and maintenance of social behavior in the natural world. James Marshall guides readers through the vast and confusing literature on the evolution of social behavior, introducing and explaining the competing theories that claim to provide answers to questions such as why animals evolve to behave altruistically. Using simple statistical language and techniques that practicing biologists will be familiar with, he provides a comprehensive yet easily understandable treatment of key concepts and their repeated misinterpretations.

Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

Contrary to the expectations of kin selection theory, intracolony relatedness in eusocial insects is often low. We examined the idea that associations of low relatedness high genetic variability may be advantageous because of negative frequency-dependent selection on common host phenotypes by rapidly evolving parasites and pathogens.

Using the natural host-parasite system of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris and its intestinal trypanosome Crithidia bombi , we investigated the transmission properties of parasites in host groups. Within naturally infested nests and in artificially constructed groups of workers, prevalence of infestation increased with time of exposure Table 1. The susceptibility of isolated groups of workers to the parasites to which they were exposed differed with identity and natural infestation of their nest of origin Table 2.

In addition, those workers that were related to the individual introducing an infection to their group were more likely to become infested than were unrelated workers Table 3. Although the bumble bee workers in experimental boxes appeared to differ in behavior toward kin and non-kin, making more physical contacts with kin, we found no discernible relationship between number of physical contacts and prevalence of infestation in a group.

Therefore, we conclude that differences in parasite transmission reflected interactions among different host and parasite phenotypes. This system thus demonstrates the factors necessary for negative frequency-dependent selection by parasites on common host phenotypes - variability for susceptibility and infectiousness in host and parasite populations and similarity for these traits among related individuals.

If, as we show here, high genetic relatedness within groups enhances parasite transmission, kin directed altruism may increase the risk of contracting parasites and infectious diseases. Therefore, parasites and pathogens may be an important force moderating the genetic structure of social groups.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Alford DV Bumblebees. Davis-Poynter, London. Google Scholar. Allard RW The genetics of host-pathogen coevolution: implications for genetic resource conservation. J Hered —6. Behav Ecol Sociobiol — Can Entomol — Bremermann HJ Sex and polymorphism as strategies in host-pathogen interactions. J Theor Biol — Westview Press, Boulder London, pp — Cole BJ Multiple mating and the evolution of social behavior in the Hymenoptera.

Craig R Parental manipulation, kin selection, and the evolution of altruism. Evolution — Crozier RH Evolutionary genetics of the Hymenoptera. Annu Rev Entomol — Heredity — Nature — Grafen A How not to measure inclusive fitness. Greenberg L Genetic component of bee odor in kin recognition. Science — Haldane JBS The statics of evolution. J Theor Biol —16, 17— Hamilton WD Sex versus non-sex versus parasite. Oikos — Hamilton WD Kinship, recognition, disease, and intelligence: constraints on social evolution.

Japanese Scientific Society Press, Tokyo, pp 81— Herbers JM Nest site limitation and facultative polygyny in the ant Leptothorax longispinosis. Naturwissenschaften — Genetics — Hymenoptera, Apidae. Acta Protozool —]. Michener CD Reproductive efficiency in relation to colony size in hymenopterous societies. Insectes Soc — Nonacs P Queen number in colonies of social Hymenoptera as a kin-selected adaptation. Ethology — J Insect Behav — Noonan KN Individual strategies of inclusive-fitness maximizing in Polistes fuscatus foundresses.

Chiron Press, New York, pp 18— Ann Entomol Soc Am — Theor Popul Biol — Pearson B Intra-colonial relatedness amongst workers in a population of nests of the polygynous ant, Myrmica rubra Latreille.

Behav Ecol Sociobiol —4. Pratte M Relations anterieures at association de fondation chez Polistes gallicus L. Peperny, Munich, pp — University of Chicago Press, Chicago London, pp 76— Nature Anim Behav — In: Jeanne RL ed Interindividual behavioral variability in social insects. Apidologie — SAS Institute Statistics, version 5. Am Nat — Apidologie in press. Strassmann JE Altruism and relatedness at colony foundation in social insects. TREE — Tooby J Pathogens, polymorphism, and the evolution of sex.

Visscher PK Kinship discrimination in queen rearing by honey bees Apis mellifera. West-Eberhard MJ The nature and evolution of swarming in tropical social wasps. In: Jaisson P ed Social insects in the tropics. University Paris-Nord, Paris, pp 97— Wilson EO The insect societies.

Zar JH Biostatistical analysis, 2nd edn. Download references. Reprints and Permissions. Shykoff, J. Genetic relatedness and eusociality: parasite-mediated selection on the genetic composition of groups. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 28, — Download citation. Received : 24 September Accepted : 22 January Issue Date : June Search SpringerLink Search. Summary Contrary to the expectations of kin selection theory, intracolony relatedness in eusocial insects is often low.

Immediate online access to all issues from Subscription will auto renew annually. References Alford DV Bumblebees. Apidologie in press Strassmann JE Altruism and relatedness at colony foundation in social insects.

Author information Author notes Jacqui A. Shykoff View author publications. View author publications. Additional information Offprint requests to : J. Shykoff at the present address. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions.

About this article Cite this article Shykoff, J.

Inclusive fitness

Metrics details. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory EIFT synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities. EIFT helps to promote an interdisciplinary cross fertilization of the understanding of synergy by, for example, allowing to describe the role for division of labor in the emergence of social synergies, providing an integrated framework for the study of both, biological evolution of social behavior and economic market dynamics. Another example is a bio-economic understanding of the motivations of terrorists, which identifies different forms of terrorism.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Arising from M. Nowak, C. Wilson Nature , —


Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. ARISING FROM M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson Nature , – (). Nowak et al.1 argue that.


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Inclusive fitness in finite populations—effects of heterogeneity and synergy. Evolution, — Hamilton's Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions. Journal of Theoretical Biology Krupp, Peter D.

Mathematical models based on direct fitness calculations may be able to explain important aspects of social evolution in insects. Social organization is a fundamental feature of many organisms, including humans. How can genes that make their carriers sterile be a successful evolutionary invention? Such genes can only survive in a population if they are expressed in some of the individuals that carry them, but not in others.

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Eusociality, in which some individuals reduce their own lifetime reproductive potential to raise the offspring of others, underlies the most advanced forms of social organization and the ecologically dominant role of social insects and humans.

THE EVOLUTION OF EUSOCIALITY

Вода из горячей постепенно превратилась в теплую и, наконец, холодную. Она уже собиралась вылезать, как вдруг ожил радиотелефон. Сьюзан быстро встала и, расплескивая воду, потянулась к трубке, лежавшей на краю раковины.

Затем она, наверное, вмонтирует алгоритм в защищенный чип, и через пять лет все компьютеры будут выпускаться с предустановленным чипом Цифровой крепости. Никакой коммерческий производитель и мечтать не мог о создании шифровального чипа, потому что нормальные алгоритмы такого рода со временем устаревают. Но Цифровая крепость никогда не устареет: благодаря функции меняющегося открытого текста она выдержит людскую атаку и не выдаст ключа. Новый стандарт шифрования. Отныне и навсегда.


Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. ARISING FROM M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson Nature , – (). Nowak et.


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Конечно, он должен был проверить все показатели, но единственная цифра, которая по-настоящему всегда интересовала директора, - это СЦР, средняя цена одной расшифровки. Иными словами, СЦР представляла собой оценочную стоимость вскрытия ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ одного шифра. Если цена не превышала тысячи долларов, Фонтейн никак не реагировал. Тысчонка за сеанс. Бринкерхофф ухмыльнулся. Деньги налогоплательщиков в действии.

ANON. ORG Ее внимание сразу же привлекли буквы ARA - сокращенное название Анонимной рассылки Америки, хорошо известного анонимного сервера. Такие серверы весьма популярны среди пользователей Интернета, желающих скрыть свои личные данные. За небольшую плату они обеспечивают анонимность электронной почты, выступая в роли посредников. Это все равно что номерной почтовый ящик: пользователь получает и отправляет почту, не раскрывая ни своего имени, ни адреса.

COMMENT 5

  • PDF | Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson , (​); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory | Find​. Junrey C. - 18.05.2021 at 07:38
  • In evolutionary biology , inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. Ophelia S. - 18.05.2021 at 18:47
  • Contrary to the expectations of kin selection theory, intracolony relatedness in eusocial insects is often low. Othello T. - 23.05.2021 at 03:52
  • Inclusive fitness theory has explained why eusociality has evolved only in monogamous lineages, and why it is correlated with certain. Tpagtiansulid - 25.05.2021 at 09:52
  • Fallout new vegas guide pdf free download surface area and volume of sphere pdf Ane O. - 25.05.2021 at 20:49

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