Primary and secondary electrical distribution systems pdf

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primary and secondary electrical distribution systems pdf

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It links the bulk electricity system to the customer points [1]. Figure shows a one-line diagram of a typical electrical power generation, transmission, and distribution system. The original electrical distribution system developed by Thomas Edison was an underground direct current DC system.

Primary and Secondary Electrical Distribution Systems

Mimic bus symbols accurately reflect the distribution system arrangement that they are producing. Photo: Sage Controls, Inc. The primary function of the electric power distribution system in a building or facility is to receive power at one or more supply points and to deliver it to lighting, elevators, chillers, motors and all other electrical loads. The best distribution system is one that will, cost-effectively and safely, supply adequate electric service to both present and future probable loads. The selection of a system arrangement has a profound impact upon the reliability and maintainability of the electrical system. Four basic circuit arrangements are used for the distribution of electric power.

Customers are classed as: Industrial Customer Commercial Customer Residential Customer Transportation Customer Distribution Systems TOP A distribution system consists of all the facilities and equipment connecting a transmission system to the customer's equipment. Energy flow through a typical substation The following are examples of distribution systems components. Collectively they constitute a typical distribution system. These typically deliver voltages as high as 34, volts 34 kV and as low as volts. Figure 2. Typical residential service drop Figure 3.

Primary and Secondary Electrical Distribution Systems

Sivanagaraju Author of Electric Power Transmission and Electrical Power Distribution and Automation by S. Sivanagaraju, V. Electric Power Distribution — by A. Pabla, Tata Mc Graw-hill Publishing company, 4th edition, Integrated Design Electricity is then transmitted from the power stations through a national network of electricity lines which operate at high voltage.

Transformers do what their name implies—they transform voltages from one value to another The term voltage is used rather than emf, because transformers have internal resistance. For example, many cell phones, laptops, video games, and power tools and small appliances have a transformer built into their plug-in unit like that in Figure 1 that changes V or V AC into whatever voltage the device uses. Transformers are also used at several points in the power distribution systems, such as illustrated in Figure 2. Power is sent long distances at high voltages, because less current is required for a given amount of power, and this means less line loss, as was discussed previously. Figure 1. The plug-in transformer has become increasingly familiar with the proliferation of electronic devices that operate on voltages other than common V AC. Most are in the 3 to 12 V range.

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There are various types of transformer used in the electrical power system for different purposes, like generation, distribution and transmission and utilization of electrical power. The different types of transformer are Step up and Step down Transformer, Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer, Instrument transformer comprising current and Potential Transformer, Single phase and Three phase transformer, Auto transformer, etc. This type of transformer is categorized on the basis of a number of turns in the primary and secondary windings and the induced emf. Step-up transformer transforms a low voltage, high current AC into a high voltage, low current AC system In this type of transformer the number of turns in the secondary winding is greater than the number of turns in the primary winding. Step down transformer converts a high primary voltage associated with the low current into a low voltage, high current.

Types of AC power distribution systems

Types of Transformer

Eaton Electrical Cutler-Hammer Products. PU: PU: Non adjustable.

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