Theory of organizational development and change thomas cummings pdf
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- Organization development
- Org Dev case study (4 paragraphs)- Textbook provided
- CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
Organization development OD is the study and implementation of practices, systems, and techniques that affect organizational change. The organizational changes are typically initiated by the groups stakeholders.
OD emerged from human relations studies in the s, during which psychologists realized that organizational structures and processes influence worker behavior and motivation. More recently, work on OD has expanded to focus on aligning organizations with their rapidly changing and complex environments through organizational learning , knowledge management , and transformation of organizational norms and values.
Organization development as a practice involves an ongoing, systematic process of implementing effective organizational change. OD is both a field of applied science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and a field of scientific study and inquiry. It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology , psychology , particularly industrial and organizational psychology , and theories of motivation , learning, and personality.
Although behavioral science has provided the basic foundation for the study and practice of OD, new and emerging fields of study have made their presence felt. Experts in systems thinking , in organizational learning , in the structure of intuition in decision-making, and in coaching to name a few whose perspective is not steeped in just the behavioral sciences, but in a much more multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approach [ citation needed ] , have emerged as OD catalysts or tools.
Kurt Lewin — is the founding father of OD, although he died before the concept became mainstream in the mids. Kurt Lewin played a key role in the evolution of organization development as it is known today.
As early as World War II , Lewin experimented with a collaborative change-process involving himself as a consultant and a client group based on a three-step process of planning, taking action, and measuring results. This was the forerunner of action research, an important element of OD, which will be discussed later. Lewin also initiated a learning method known as laboratory training, or T-groups.
After Lewin's death in , his close associates helped to develop survey-research methods at the University of Michigan. These procedures became important parts of OD as developments in this field continued at the National Training Laboratories and in growing numbers of universities and private consulting-firms across the country [ which? Douglas and Richard Beckhard, while "consulting together at General Mills in the s [ The failure of off-site laboratory training to live up to its early promise was one of the important forces stimulating the development of OD.
Laboratory training is learning from a person's "here and now" experience as a member of an ongoing training group. Such groups usually meet without a specific agenda. Their purpose is for the members to learn about themselves from their spontaneous "here and now" responses to an ambiguous situation.
Problems of leadership , structure, status, communication , and self-serving behavior typically arise in such a group. The members have an opportunity to learn something about themselves and to practice such skills as listening, observing others, and functioning as effective group members.
Shepard conducted the first large-scale experiments in Organization Development in the late fifties. As formerly practiced and occasionally still practiced for special purposes , laboratory training was conducted in "stranger groups" - groups composed of individuals from different organizations, situations, and backgrounds. A major difficulty developed, however, in transferring knowledge gained from these "stranger labs" to the actual situation "back home".
This required a transfer between two different cultures, the relatively safe and protected environment of the T-group or training group , and the give-and-take of the organizational environment with its traditional values. This led the early pioneers in this type of learning to begin to apply it to "family groups" — that is, groups located within an organization.
From this shift in the locale of the training site and the realization that culture was an important factor in influencing group members along with some other [ which? Underlying Organization Development are humanistic values. Margulies and Raia articulated the humanistic values of OD as follows:.
As objectives of organizational development are framed [ by whom? In other words, these programs [ which? But broadly speaking, all organizational development programs try to achieve the following objectives:. According to organizational-development thinking, organization development provides managers with a vehicle for introducing change systematically by applying a broad selection of management techniques. This, in turn, leads to greater personal, group, and organizational effectiveness.
A change agent in the sense used here is not a technical expert skilled in such functional areas as accounting, production, or finance. The change agent is a behavioral scientist who knows how to get people in an organization involved in solving their own problems.
A change agent's main strength is a comprehensive knowledge of human behavior, supported by a number of intervention techniques to be discussed later. The change agent can be either external or internal to the organization. An internal change agent is usually a staff person who has expertise in the behavioral sciences and in the intervention technology of OD. Beckhard reports several cases in which line people have been trained in OD and have returned to their organizations to engage in successful change-assignments.
Researchers at the University of Oxford found that leaders can be effective change-agents within their own organizations if they are strongly committed to "knowledge leadership" targeted towards organizational development. In their three-year study of UK healthcare organizations, the researchers identified three different mechanisms through which knowledge leaders actively "transposed", "appropriated" or "contended" change concepts, effectively translating and embedding these in organizational practice.
The change agent may be a staff or line member of the organization who is schooled in OD theory and technique. In such a case, the "contractual relationship" is an in-house agreement that should probably be explicit with respect to all of the conditions involved except the fee. The initiative for OD programs often comes from an organization that has a problem or anticipates facing a problem.
This means that top management or someone authorized by top management is aware that a problem exists and has decided to seek help in solving it. There is a direct analogy here to the practice of psychotherapy : The client or patient must actively seek help in finding a solution to his problems.
This indicates a willingness on the part of the client organization to accept help and assures the organization that management is actively concerned. One of the outstanding characteristics of OD that distinguishes it from most other improvement programs is that it is based on a "helping relationship". The basic method used is known as action research.
This approach, which is described in detail later, consists of a preliminary diagnosis, collecting data, feedback of the data to the client, data exploration by the client group, action planning based on the data, and taking action.
OD deals with a total system — the organization as a whole, including its relevant environment — or with a subsystem or systems — departments or workgroups — in the context of the total system. Parts of systems — for example, individuals, cliques, structures, norms, values, and products — are not considered in isolation; the principle of interdependency — that change in one part of a system affects the other parts — is fully recognized.
Thus OD interventions focus on the total cultures and cultural processes of organizations. The focus is also on groups, since the relevant behavior of individuals in organizations and groups is generally a product of the influences of groups rather than of personalities. The objective of OD is to improve the organization's capacity to handle its internal and external functioning and relationships.
This includes improved interpersonal and group processes, more effective communication, and enhanced ability to cope with organizational problems of all kinds. It also involves more effective decision processes, more appropriate leadership styles , improved skill in dealing with destructive conflict, as well as developing improved levels of trust and cooperation among organizational members. These objectives stem from a value system based on an optimistic view of the nature of man — that man in a supportive environment is capable of achieving higher levels of development and accomplishment.
Essential to organization development and effectiveness is the scientific method — inquiry, a rigorous search for causes, experimental testing of hypotheses, and review of results. Self-managing workgroups allow the members of a work team to manage, control, and monitor all facets of their work, from recruiting, hiring, and new employees to deciding when to take rest breaks. An early analysis of the first-self-managing work groups yielded the following behavioral characteristics Hackman, :.
The ultimate aim of OD practitioners is to "work themselves out of a job" by leaving the client organization with a set of tools, behaviors, attitudes, and an action plan with which to monitor its own state of health and to take corrective steps toward its own renewal and development.
This is consistent with the systems concept of feedback as a regulatory and corrective mechanism. One example of a self-renewal simulation, authored by researchers from Cornell University and Indiana University, can be found here see citation.
The study of organizational effectiveness and improving organizational performance has developed alongside the study of leadership development with a greater focus on leadership development programs that focus on the development of the individual. Emotional intelligence in relation to leadership development. In recent years, serious questioning has emerged about the relevance of OD to managing change in modern organizations.
The need for "reinventing" the field has become a topic that even some of its "founding fathers" are discussing critically. With this call for reinvention and change, scholars have begun to examine organizational development from an emotion-based standpoint. For example, deKlerk  writes about how emotional trauma can negatively affect performance.
Due to downsizing, outsourcing, mergers, restructuring, continual changes, invasions of privacy, harassment, and abuses of power, many employees experience the emotions of aggression, anxiety, apprehension, cynicism, and fear, which can lead to performance decreases. One method of achieving this is by having employees draw pictures of what they feel about the situation, and then having them explain their drawings with each other. Drawing pictures is beneficial because it allows employees to express emotions they normally would not be able to put into words.
Also, drawings often prompt active participation in the activity, as everyone is required to draw a picture and then discuss its meaning The use of new technologies combined with globalization has also shifted the field of organizational development. Roland Sullivan defined Organization Development with participants at the 1st Organization Development Conference for Asia in Dubai as "Organization Development is a transformative leap to a desired vision where strategies and systems align, in the light of local culture with an innovative and authentic leadership style using the support of high tech tools.
Bob Aubrey  introduced KDIs Key Development Indicators to help organizations go beyond performance and align strategy, organizations, and individuals and argued that fundamental challenges such as robotics, artificial intelligence, and genetics prefigure a regeneration of the field. Wendell L French and Cecil Bell defined organization development OD at one point as "organization improvement through action research".
Concerned with social change and, more particularly, with effective, permanent social change, Lewin believed that the motivation to change was strongly related to action: If people are active in decisions affecting them, they are more likely to adopt new ways. Lewin's description of the process of change involves three steps: . Figure 1 summarizes the steps and processes involved in planned change through action research.
Action research is depicted as a cyclical process of change. The cycle begins with a series of planning actions initiated by the client and the change agent working together. The principal elements of this stage include a preliminary diagnosis, data gathering, feedback of results, and joint action planning.
In the language of systems theory, this is the input phase, in which the client system becomes aware of problems as yet unidentified, realizes it may need outside help to effect changes, and shares with the consultant the process of problem diagnosis. The second stage of action research is the action, or transformation, phase.
This stage includes actions relating to learning processes perhaps in the form of role analysis and to planning and executing behavioral changes in the client organization. As shown in Figure 1, feedback at this stage would move via Feedback Loop A and would have the effect of altering previous planning to bring the learning activities of the client system into better alignment with change objectives.
Included in this stage is action-planning activity carried out jointly by the consultant and members of the client system.
Following the workshop or learning sessions, these action steps are carried out on the job as part of the transformation stage. The third stage of action research is the output, or results, phase. This stage includes actual changes in behavior if any resulting from corrective action steps taken following the second stage. Data are again gathered from the client system so that progress can be determined and necessary adjustments in learning activities can be made.
Minor adjustments of this nature can be made in learning activities via Feedback Loop B see Figure 1. Major adjustments and reevaluations would return the OD project to the first, or planning, a stage for basic changes in the program. The action-research model shown in Figure 1 closely follows Lewin's repetitive cycle of planning, action, and measuring results.
Org Dev case study (4 paragraphs)- Textbook provided
Organization development and change ODC is a term used to refer to organization development OD as it emerged in the s and s as a discrete area of inquiry. The term also refers to subsequent developments in planned organizational change and broader labels such as change management since the midth century. ODC originally focused on humanistically oriented process interventions within comparatively small groups of organizational members aimed at improving their functioning. Its scope has expanded considerably over the decades to include many more types of interventions, a much wider array of participants, and a much broader scope of activity. There are two types of ODC textbooks.
CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
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Refer book. Order inspection copy. The authors work from a strong theoretical foundation to describe, in practical terms, how behavioral science knowledge can be used to develop organizational strategies, structures, and processes. Learning Objectives: Each chapter opens with succinct objectives for the student to learn and understand as they read the chapter.
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Organization: Definition, Structure, Evolution 2. Please click button to get organization What Is Organization Development? T hinkforamomentabouttheorganizationstowhichyoubelong.
Organization development OD is the study and implementation of practices, systems, and techniques that affect organizational change. The organizational changes are typically initiated by the groups stakeholders. OD emerged from human relations studies in the s, during which psychologists realized that organizational structures and processes influence worker behavior and motivation. More recently, work on OD has expanded to focus on aligning organizations with their rapidly changing and complex environments through organizational learning , knowledge management , and transformation of organizational norms and values. Organization development as a practice involves an ongoing, systematic process of implementing effective organizational change. OD is both a field of applied science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and a field of scientific study and inquiry. It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology , psychology , particularly industrial and organizational psychology , and theories of motivation , learning, and personality.
The text is designed to facilitate the learning of OD theory and practice. Based on feed- Thomas G. Cummings, professor, chair of the Department of Management and Organiza- _pdf; San Diego International Airport, http://friendsofhiddenriver.org