Blacks in science ancient and modern pdf
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- Great achievements in science and technology in ancient Africa
Providing an overview of the lost sciences of Africa and of contributions that blacks have made to modern American science, "Blacks in Science" presents a range of new information from Africanists. The book also includes bibliographical guides that are crucial to further research and teaching. The lineaments of a lost science are now emerging and we can glimpse some of the once buried reefs of this remarkable civilization. A lot more remains to be revealed. But enough has been found in the past few years to make it quite clear that the finest heart of the African world receded into the shadow while its broken bones were put on spectacular display.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences , engineering , medicine , military technology , mathematics , geology and astronomy. Among the earliest inventions were the abacus , the sundial , and the Kongming lantern. The Tang dynasty AD — in particular was a time of great innovation. The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China, and knowledge of Chinese technology was brought to Europe. Much of the early Western work in the history of science in China was done by Joseph Needham. The Warring States period began years ago at the time of the invention of the crossbow.
Ancient Occult Books Pdf
Despite suffering through the horrific system of slavery, sharecropping and the Jim Crow era, early African-Americans made countless contributions to science and technology 1. This lineage and culture of achievement, though, emerged at least 40, years ago in Africa. Unfortunately, few of us are aware of these accomplishments, as the history of Africa, beyond ancient Egypt, is seldom publicized. Sadly, the vast majority of discussions on the origins of science include only the Greeks, Romans and other whites. But in fact most of their discoveries came thousands of years after African developments. While the remarkable black civilization in Egypt remains alluring, there was sophistication and impressive inventions throughout ancient sub-Saharan Africa as well.
Africa has the world's oldest record of human technological achievement: the oldest stone tools in the world have been found in eastern Africa, and later evidence for tool production by our hominin ancestors has been found across Sub-Saharan Africa. The Great Rift Valley of Africa provides critical evidence for the evolution of early hominins. The earliest tools in the world can be found there as well:. It was considered the largest library in the classical world. The oldest degree-granting university in Egypt after the Cairo University , its establishment date may be considered when non-religious subjects were added to its curriculum. Three philosophical schools in Mali existed during the country's "golden age" from the 12th to the 16th centuries: University of Sankore , Sidi Yahya University , and Djinguereber University.
In paleoanthropology , the recent African origin of modern humans , also called the " Out of Africa " theory OOA , recent single-origin hypothesis RSOH , replacement hypothesis , or recent African origin model RAO , is the dominant    model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens. It follows the early expansions of hominins out of Africa , accomplished by Homo erectus and then Homo neanderthalensis. The model proposes a "single origin" of Homo sapiens in the taxonomic sense, precluding parallel evolution of traits considered anatomically modern in other regions,  but not precluding multiple admixture between H. There were at least several "out-of-Africa" dispersals of modern humans, possibly beginning as early as , years ago, including , years ago to at least Greece ,    and certainly via northern Africa about , to , years ago. The most significant "recent" wave out of Africa took place about 70,—50, years ago,      via the so-called " Southern Route ", spreading rapidly along the coast of Asia and reaching Australia by around 65,—50, years ago,   [note 2] though some researchers question the earlier Australian dates and place the arrival of humans there at 50, years ago at earliest,   while others have suggested that these first settlers of Australia may represent an older wave before the more significant out of Africa migration and thus not necessarily be ancestral to the region's later inhabitants  while Europe was populated by an early offshoot which settled the Near East and Europe less than 55, years ago. In the s, studies in population genetics uncovered evidence of interbreeding that occurred between H.
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Great achievements in science and technology in ancient Africa
Scientists, engineers, and inventors find the solutions to the world's problems. Learn about the work that these Black scientists and inventors have accomplished that make our lives better. George Washington Carver was an agricultural chemist who gained acclaim for his discovery of alternative farming methods. Carver is best known for his discovery of uses for the peanut. Among the products Carver developed from peanuts were soap, face powder, mayonnaise, shampoo, metal polish, and adhesives—but he did not invent peanut butter.
All libraries remain closed to the public until further notice. Library To Go service is available at selected libraries. Much is said and written about African-Americans shaping the popular culture of the United States with their endeavors in sports and entertainment. However, the same fervor of attention is not given to people of African descent participating in the world of science and innovation. There are a significant number of African-Americans making notable accomplishments as astronauts, chemists, inventors, information technology specialists, neurosurgeons, cancer specialists, electronic engineers and holistic practitioners centered in the African tradition of healing.
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