Recent animal disease outbreaks and their impact on human populations pdf

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recent animal disease outbreaks and their impact on human populations pdf

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Infectious Diseases and Meat Production

NCBI Bookshelf. Unlike the meteorological perfect storm—happening just once in a century—the microbial perfect storm will be a recurrent event. The two events share a common feature; a combination of factors is the driving force behind each. Zoonotic disease emergence is a complex process. A series of external factors, or drivers , provide conditions that allow for a select pathogen to expand and adapt to a new niche.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The problem with influenza viruses is that, unlike other respiratory tract viruses, they undergo considerable antigenic variation. Antigens, which are located on the surface of the viruses, are the substances, typically glyco-proteins, that stimulate an immune response. Influenza viruses carry two types of antigens: hemagglutinin HA and neuraminidase NA. Both types undergo two forms of variation.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Animal health is profoundly affected by the forces of globalization and trade, the threat of bioterrorism, the restructuring and consolidation of food and agriculture production into increasingly larger commercial units, and even by human incursions into wildlife habitats. A very large network of people, organizations, and operations undergird a framework of systems to protect animal health in the face of these forces; when changes occur that affect animal health, they also impact the framework. In recognition of the importance of the relationship of the animal health framework to changing conditions for animal health domestically and internationally, the National Academies and its Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources BANR have launched the first phase of a proposed, three-part initiative to review the state and quality of the framework and evaluate current opportunities and challenges to its effectiveness to preserve animal health see Box As the product of the first stage of the initiative, this report provides a general overview of the structure of the animal health framework; identifies opportunities and barriers to the prevention , detection , and diagnosis of animal diseases; and, recommends courses of action for first-line responders and other participants in the framework, including the potential to apply new scientific knowledge and tools to address disease threats. A comprehensive review of the U.

December , an outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus began in a small village in southern Guinea, the first outbreak of the Zaire Ebola strain in West Africa. Air travel helped the disease leap from West Africa to other continents, including North America and Europe. Despite global attention and response, 12 months into the outbreak the initial source of human infection still had not been identified. Prior Ebola outbreaks in humans, as well as a concurrent outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo beginning in August , have been linked to the hunting or handling of wild animals, with subsequent transmission among humans. Certain bat species are the suspected natural source for the virus and are thought to harbor it without signs of disease. Researchers have detected Ebola infection and mortality in wild chimpanzees, gorillas, and duiker antelopes, and evidence from human outbreaks suggests that these species have served as brief hosts for potential human infection when hunted or handled. Studies suggest that Ebola is causing severe declines in great ape populations—particularly critically endangered wild lowland gorillas—making it as much a threat to biodiversity as it is to human health.

Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are occurring with increasing frequency and consequences, including wildlife diseases and zoonoses. Those have potentially long-lasting effects on human and wildlife populations, with inevitable direct and indirect effects on ecosystems. The intensifying emergence of infectious pathogens has many underlying reasons, all driven by the growing anthropogenic impact on nature. Intensifying pathogen emergence can be attributed to climate change, biodiversity loss, habitat degradation, and an increasing rate of wildlife—human contacts. All of these are caused by synergies between persisting intense poverty and a growing human population. Improved global management of the human-driven biological degradation and international dispersal processes that exacerbate those pandemic threats are now long overdue. It is vital that we act decisively in the aftermath of the COVID crisis to radically change how we collectively manage the planet as a whole.

a third of the population within 6 months. ¹Adapted from Bender JB et al. () Recent animal disease outbreaks and their impact on human.

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Most infectious diseases in humans originate from animals. In this paper, we explore the role of animal farming and meat consumption in the emergence and amplification of infectious diseases. First, we discuss how meat production increases epidemic risks, either directly through increased contact with wild and farmed animals or indirectly through its impact on the environment e.

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Biodiversity loss, emerging pathogens and human health risks

How to detect new viral outbreaks or epidemics? We need to survey the circulation of viruses in humans and other animals using fast, sensible, cheap, and broad-spectrum methodologies.

Why deforestation and extinctions make pandemics more likely

Через несколько месяцев оба начали подозревать, что обрели нечто такое, что может продлиться всю жизнь. Они были вместе уже два года, когда Дэвид вдруг сделал ей предложение. Это случилось во время поездки на уик-энд в Смоки-Маунтинс.

Давайте же, ребята… уже миллион раз вы меня проверяли. Когда она приблизилась к последнему контрольно-пропускному пункту, коренастый часовой с двумя сторожевыми псами на поводке и автоматом посмотрел на номерной знак ее машины и кивком разрешил следовать. Она проехала по Кэнин-роуд еще сотню метров и въехала на стоянку С, предназначенную для сотрудников. Невероятно, - подумала она, - двадцать шесть тысяч служащих, двадцатимиллиардный бюджет - и они не могут обойтись без меня в уик-энд. Она поставила машину на зарезервированное за ней место и выключила двигатель.

Emerging Diseases from Animals


 Я не собираюсь тебя убивать. Мне нужен только ключ. - Какой ключ. Стратмор снова вздохнул. - Тот, который тебе передал Танкадо. - Понятия не имею, о чем .

Нравится нам это или нет, но демократию от анархии отделяет не очень-то прочная дверь, и АНБ ее охраняет. Хейл задумчиво кивнул: - Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Сьюзан была озадачена. - Это по-латыни, - объяснил Хейл.  - Из сатир Ювенала. Это значит - Кто будет охранять охранников?.

Пятнадцать секунд спустя экран ожил. Сначала изображение на экране было смутным, точно смазанным сильным снегопадом, но постепенно оно становилось все четче и четче. Это была цифровая мультимедийная трансляция - всего пять кадров в секунду. На экране появились двое мужчин: один бледный, коротко стриженный, другой - светловолосый, с типично американской внешностью. Они сидели перед камерой наподобие телеведущих, ожидающих момента выхода в эфир. - Это что еще за чертовщина? - возмутился Джабба.