Innate and adaptive immune responses in asthma pdf file
File Name: innate and adaptive immune responses in asthma file.zip
- Type 2 immunity in asthma
- Adaptive immune system
- Natural killer T cells and the regulation of asthma
- Innate immunity.
The adaptive immune system , also referred as the acquired immune system , is a subsystem of the immune system that is composed of specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Increasing evidence indicates that chronic inflammatory and immune responses play key roles in the development and progression of COPD. These signals act as ligands to Toll-like receptors TLRs , triggering the production of cytokines and inducing innate inflammation. Furthermore, viral and bacterial infections interfere with the chronic inflammation seen in stable COPD and exacerbations via pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs. Finally, autoimmunity is another novel aspect that may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD.
Type 2 immunity in asthma
The prevalence of asthma has been rising steadily for several decades, and continues to be a major public health and global economic burden due to both direct and indirect costs. Asthma is defined as chronic heterogeneous inflammatory diseases characterized by airway obstruction, mucus production and bronchospasm. Different endotypes of asthma are being recognized based on the distinct pathophysiology, genetic predisposition, age, prognosis, and response to remedies. Mucosal innate response to environmental triggers such as pollen, cigarette smoke, fragrances, viral infection, and house dust mite HDM are now recognized to play an important role in allergic asthma. HDM are the most pervasive allergens that co-habitat with us, as they are ubiquitous in-house dusts, mattress and bedsheets, and feed on a diet of exfoliated human skin flakes. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , is one among several HDM identified up to date. During the last decade, extensive studies have been fundamental in elucidating the interactions between HDM allergens, the host immune systems and airways.
Inhalation is required for respiration and life in all vertebrates. This process is not without risk, as it potentially exposes the host to environmental pathogens with every breath. This makes the upper respiratory tract one of the most common routes of infection and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. To combat this, the lung relies on the innate immune defenses. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the innate immune system does not require sensitization, previous exposure or priming to attack foreign particles. In the lung, the innate immune response starts with the epithelial barrier and mucus production and is reinforced by phagocytic cells and T cells. These cells are vital for the production of cytokines, chemokines and anti-microbial peptides that are critical for clearance of infectious agents.
Adaptive immune system
Natural killer T cells and the regulation of asthma
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Ishmael FT. The Inflammatory Response in the Pathogenesis of Asthma. It is now clear that asthma is not a single disease, but rather a syndrome that can be caused by multiple biologic mechanisms.
It aims to publish relevant articles in the broadest sense on all aspects of microbiology, infectious diseases and immune response to infectious agents. The BJID is a bimonthly publication and one of the most influential journals in its field in Brazil and Latin America with a high impact factor. Since its inception it has garnered a growing share of the publishing market. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published.
Metrics details. Type 2-immunity represents the typical adaptive response to allergen exposure in atopic individuals. It mainly involves Th2 cells and immunoglobulin E, as the main orchestrators of type 2-inflammation.