Noise pollution causes effects and control pdf

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noise pollution causes effects and control pdf

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Most of us are accustomed to the sounds we hear every day. However, when the sound of the television keeps you from sleeping all night or the traffic starts giving you a headache, it transcends the boundaries of mere noise and qualifies as noise pollution.

The Causes and Effects of Noise Pollution

Noise pollution , unwanted or excessive sound that can have deleterious effects on human health, wildlife, and environmental quality. Noise pollution is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. Sound waves are vibrations of air molecules carried from a noise source to the ear. Sound is typically described in terms of the loudness amplitude and the pitch frequency of the wave.

Loudness also called sound pressure level, or SPL is measured in logarithmic units called decibels dB. The normal human ear can detect sounds that range between 0 dB hearing threshold and about dB, with sounds between dB and dB causing pain pain threshold. The ambient SPL in a library is about 35 dB, while that inside a moving bus or subway train is roughly 85 dB; building construction activities can generate SPLs as high as dB at the source.

SPLs decrease with distance from the source. The rate at which sound energy is transmitted, called sound intensity , is proportional to the square of the SPL.

Because of the logarithmic nature of the decibel scale, an increase of 10 dB represents a fold increase in sound intensity, an increase of 20 dB represents a fold increase in intensity, a dB increase represents a 1,fold increase in intensity, and so on.

When sound intensity is doubled, on the other hand, the SPL increases by only 3 dB. For example, if a construction drill causes a noise level of about 90 dB, then two identical drills operating side by side will cause a noise level of 93 dB.

On the other hand, when two sounds that differ by more than 15 dB in SPL are combined, the weaker sound is masked or drowned out by the louder sound. For example, if an dB drill is operating next to a dB dozer at a construction site, the combined SPL of those two sources will be measured as 95 dB; the less intense sound from the compressor will not be noticeable.

The human eardrum is a very sensitive organ with a large dynamic range, being able to detect sounds at frequencies as low as 20 Hz a very low pitch up to about 20, Hz a very high pitch. The pitch of a human voice in normal conversation occurs at frequencies between Hz and 2, Hz.

Precise measurement and scientific description of sound levels differ from most subjective human perceptions and opinions about sound. Subjective human responses to noise depend on both pitch and loudness. People with normal hearing generally perceive high-frequency sounds to be louder than low-frequency sounds of the same amplitude.

For this reason, electronic sound-level meters used to measure noise levels take into account the variations of perceived loudness with pitch. Frequency filters in the meters serve to match meter readings with the sensitivity of the human ear and the relative loudness of various sounds. The so-called A-weighted filter, for example, is commonly used for measuring ambient community noise.

Noise levels generally vary with time, so noise measurement data are reported as time-averaged values to express overall noise levels. There are several ways to do this. Another unit, called equivalent sound levels L eq , can be used to express an average SPL over any period of interest, such as an eight-hour workday. L eq is a logarithmic average rather than an arithmetic average, so loud events prevail in the overall result.

A unit called day-night sound level DNL or L dn accounts for the fact that people are more sensitive to noise during the night, so a dBA penalty is added to SPL values that are measured between 10 pm and 7 am. DNL measurements are very useful for describing overall community exposure to aircraft noise, for example. Noise is more than a mere nuisance. At certain levels and durations of exposure, it can cause physical damage to the eardrum and the sensitive hair cells of the inner ear and result in temporary or permanent hearing loss , known as noise-induced hearing loss.

Hearing loss does not usually occur at SPLs below 80 dBA eight-hour exposure levels are best kept below 85 dBA , but most people repeatedly exposed to more than dBA will have permanent hearing loss to some extent.

In addition to causing hearing loss, excessive noise exposure can raise blood pressure and pulse rates, cause irritability, anxiety , and mental fatigue, and interfere with sleep , recreation, and personal communication.

Children living in areas with high levels of noise pollution may suffer from stress and other problems, such as impairments in memory and attention span. Noise pollution control is therefore important in the workplace and in the community. Noise pollution also impacts wildlife. A wide range of animals, including insects , frogs , birds , and bats , rely on sound for a variety of reasons.

Some of the loudest and most detrimental sounds in the sea are from naval sonar devices, whose noise can travel hundreds of miles through the water and is associated with mass strandings of whales and dolphins. Noise pollution Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Richard E. Coauthor of The Physics of Sound. See Article History. Learn about the impact of underwater noise on marine animals, notably harbour porpoises.

Human action has triggered a vast cascade of environmental problems that now threaten the continued ability of both natural and human systems to flourish. Solving the critical environmental problems of global warming, water scarcity, pollution, and biodiversity loss are perhaps the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Will we rise to meet them? Breaking up pavement with a pneumatic jackhammer. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

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Noise Pollution: Definition, Sources and Effects of Noise Pollution

It is also a very effective alarm system. Noise can be defined as an unpleasant and unwanted sound. Exposure to loud noise is indeed annoying and harmful too. Its effects are more directly on the receiver i. Noise pollution is the result of modern industrialized urban life and congestion due to over population.

Do Latex Mattresses Sag? March 01, Latex Mattress Buying Guide February 22, Posted on Sep 19, by Amber Merton. Although sound is something that is essential within our daily lives, noise is not. Sounds that cause discomfort to the ears, that produce unpleasant effects, or are unwanted, are considered to be noise.

Air pollution and excessive noise harm our health and our environment. Air pollution mainly stems from industry, transport, energy production and agriculture. The Environmental Noise Directive helps to identify noise levels in the EU and to take the necessary measures to reduce them to acceptable levels. Separate legislation regulates air and noise pollution from specific sources. Air pollution can cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases as well as cancer, and is the leading environmental cause of premature death in the EU. Certain substances, such as arsenic, cadmium, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are human genotoxic carcinogens, and there is no identifiable threshold below which they do not pose a risk.

Noise pollution

Atmospheric pollution is not the only type of contamination that is harming living beings on the planet. And according to the European Environment Agency EEA , noise is responsible for 16, premature deaths and more than 72, hospitalisations every year in Europe alone. According to the WHO, noise is harmful when it exceeds 75 decibels dB and feels painful at levels above dB. Drivers honking the horn, groups of workers drilling the road surface, aircraft flying over us in the sky

Noise Pollution: Definition, Sources and Effects of Noise Pollution

Noise pollution , unwanted or excessive sound that can have deleterious effects on human health, wildlife, and environmental quality. Noise pollution is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. Sound waves are vibrations of air molecules carried from a noise source to the ear. Sound is typically described in terms of the loudness amplitude and the pitch frequency of the wave. Loudness also called sound pressure level, or SPL is measured in logarithmic units called decibels dB. The normal human ear can detect sounds that range between 0 dB hearing threshold and about dB, with sounds between dB and dB causing pain pain threshold. The ambient SPL in a library is about 35 dB, while that inside a moving bus or subway train is roughly 85 dB; building construction activities can generate SPLs as high as dB at the source.

The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2. Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can have direct toxic effects, or indirectly by changing soil pH followed by solubilization of toxic salts of metals like aluminum. The particulate matters have a negative mechanical effect.


PDF | The study examines the problem of noise pollution in the wake of its ill and exposure to high levels of that causes adverse effects 1, 2.


What is Noise Pollution?

COMMENT 2

  • Manter and gatz neuroanatomy pdf download logistics systems design and optimization pdf Adrienne A. - 10.05.2021 at 00:16
  • It may occur due to continuous exposure to noise level of more than 90 dB. It may be temporary or permanent. Explosions or other high intensity sounds can also cause immediate deafness by rupturing the ear drums or damaging the cochlea. Many time hearing loss is attributed to occupation. Armonia S. - 13.05.2021 at 01:30

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