World population growth and distribution pdf

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world population growth and distribution pdf

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When and why did the world population grow? And how does rapid population growth come to an end? These are the big questions that are central to this research article. We show how the world population grew over the last several thousand years and we explain what has been driving this change. Life expectancy, which measures the age of death, has doubled in every region in the world as we show here. It comes to an end when the average number of births per woman — the fertility rate — declines. In the article we show the data and explain why fertility rates declined.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the total world population crossed the threshold of 1 billion people for the first time in the history of the homo sapiens sapiens. Since then, growth rates have been increasing exponentially, reaching staggeringly high peaks in the 20th century and slowing down a bit thereafter. Total world population reached 7 billion just after and is expected to count 9 billion by This paper first charts the differences in population growth between the world regions. Next, the mechanisms behind unprecedented population growth are explained and plausible scenarios for future developments are discussed. Crucial for the long term trend will be the rate of decline of the number of births per woman, called total fertility. Improvements in education, reproductive health and child survival will be needed to speed up the decline of total fertility, particularly in Africa.

We construct and calibrate a model of the world economy in which countries' opportunities to develop depend on their trade with advanced economies. Trade opportunities in turn depend on the relative population of the advanced and developing world. As developing countries become advanced, they further improve the trade prospects for the remaining developing countries. As long as the population growth differential between developing and advanced countries is not too large, the rate at which countries transition to prosperity accelerates over time. However, if population growth differentials are large relative to the transition rate, the world economy converges to widespread prosperity if and only if the proportion of the world population in advanced countries is above a critical level. The model suggests that countries which become more open are more likely to grow, but that increased openness by developing countries as a whole may lead to only modest increases in growth for developing countries in aggregate. The rapid rise of China may hurt some developing countries in the short-run, but will open tremendous opportunities for the remaining developing countries in the long-run.

The world population explosion: causes, backgrounds and projections for the future

The world and most regions and countries are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the huge expansion of human numbers: four billion have been added since Projections for the next half century expect a highly divergent world, with stagnation or potential decline in parts of the developed world and continued rapid growth in the least developed regions. Other demographic processes are also undergoing extraordinary change: women's fertility has dropped rapidly and life expectancy has risen to new highs. Past trends in fertility and mortality have led to very young populations in high fertility countries in the developing world and to increasingly older populations in the developed world.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. As in other parts of Africa, the population of Senegal has been increasing rapidly over the past several decades. This chapter traces the growth and distribution of the population of Senegal over the last 30 years and discusses briefly both interregional and international migration. From administrative counts, which probably underestimate the true size of the population, it is estimated that Senegal's population increased from about 1.

If you create an account, you can set up a personal learning profile on the site. Figure 2. Growth is slow until the middle of the 20th century, when the gradient slope of the graph increases, indicating a change to more rapid population growth. The graph continues into the future to a predicted global population in in excess of 9 billion. There are many factors that influence this trend. High rates of infant and childhood deaths and short lifespans put a limit on population growth in the past.


The term population distribution refers to the way people are spaced over the earth's surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of the world population lives in about 10 per cent.


The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. While there has been a steady increase of population growth during the past two or three centuries, it has been especially rapid during the past 20 years. To appreciate the pace of population growth we should recall that world population doubled in about 1, years from the time of Christ until the middle of the 17th century; it doubled again in about years, doubled again in less than , and, if the current rate of population increase were to remain constant, would double every 35 years.

2.1 Trends and causes of population growth

Population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, [2] or 1. The global population has grown from 1 billion in to 7.

1. Introduction

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