Different types of diseases and their causes and prevention pdf

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different types of diseases and their causes and prevention pdf

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Division of Disease Surveillance

Airborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microbes small enough to be discharged from an infected person via coughing, sneezing, laughing and close personal contact or aerosolization of the microbe. The discharged microbes remain suspended in the air on dust particles, respiratory and water droplets.

Illness is caused when the microbe is inhaled or contacts mucus membranes or when secretions remaining on a surface are touched.

Transmission of airborne diseases can be greatly reduced by practicing social and respiratory etiquette. Staying home when ill, keeping close contact with an ill person to a minimum, allowing a few feet distance from others while ill, and wearing a mask, covering coughs and sneezes with elbow or tissue can greatly reduce transmission. Good hand washing can decrease spread of germ-containing droplets that could be picked up on hands from surfaces or hand contact with secretions.

Environmental controls and engineering alternatives help reduce transmission of water droplet aerosolized pathogens. Contact Diseases are transmitted when an infected person has direct bodily contact with an uninfected person and the microbe is passed from one to the other. The presence of wound drainage or other discharges from the body suggest an increased potential for risk of transmission and environmental contamination. Precautions that create a barrier and procedures that decrease or eliminate the microbe in the environment or on personal belongings, form the basis of interrupting transmission of direct contact diseases.

Register to be an Organ Donor. JavaScript that displays the current date. Airborne and Direct Contact Diseases Airborne Diseases Airborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microbes small enough to be discharged from an infected person via coughing, sneezing, laughing and close personal contact or aerosolization of the microbe. Contact Diseases Contact Diseases are transmitted when an infected person has direct bodily contact with an uninfected person and the microbe is passed from one to the other.

Anthrax - A serious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that forms spores. A bacterium is a very small organism made up of one cell.

Many bacteria can cause disease. A spore is a cell that is dormant asleep but may come to life with the right conditions. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae CRE - Enterobacteriaceae En-tero-bac-te-ri-a-ce-ae are a family of bacteria normally found in our gut.

They can also cause serious infection in the bladder, blood, wound and lungs. Symptoms can range from mild or no symptoms to severe illness. Enterovirus - Non-polio enteroviruses are very common viruses that cause about 10 to 15 million infections in the United States each year.

Group A Streptococcus - A bacterium often found in the throat and on the skin. People may carry group A streptococci in the throat or on the skin and have no symptoms of illness. Most GAS infections are relatively mild illnesses such as "strep throat," or impetigo.

Occasionally these bacteria can cause severe and even life-threatening diseases. Invasive Group B Streptococcal GBS - A bacterium that causes illness in newborn babies, pregnant women, the elderly, and adults with other illnesses, such as diabetes or liver disease.

GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infections in newborns. Haemophilus influenza - Invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b can affect many organ systems.

The most common types of invasive disease are pneumonia, occult febrile bacteremia, meningitis, epiglottitis, septic arthritis, cellulitis, otitis media, purulent pericarditis, and other less common infections such as endocarditis, and osteomyelitis. Influenza - A disease that is caused by a virus and infects the nose, throat, and lungs. Influenza can cause severe illness and life-threatening complications in many people.

Legionellosis - An infection caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Maine monitors the incidence of Legionellosis through mandatory reporting by health care providers, clinical laboratories and other public health partners. Measles - A respiratory disease caused by a virus that causes fever, runny nose, cough, and a rash all over the body.

Meningococcal Disease - The leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults in the United States. Symptoms of meningococcal disease include fever, headache and stiff neck in meningitis cases, and sepsis and rash in meningococcemia.

MERS-CoV - Currently, all cases are associated with either direct travel to the Arabian peninsula, or contact with a returned traveler from the Arabian peninsula. Mumps - A disease caused by a virus that usually starts with a fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite followed by swelling of glands.

When MRSA bacteria are found on the skin but do not cause illness it is called "colonization. In some cases, MRSA can cause more serious infections. Pertussis - A respiratory illness that usually starts with cold-like symptoms including a cough that can worsen after a few weeks. Pertussis is commonly known as whooping cough. Plague - Plague is a disease caused by Yersinia pestis Y.

Healthy people usually experience mild, cold-like symptoms, but RSV can be serious especially for infants and older adults. Strep pneumoniae - a Gram-positive encapsulated coccus that often colonizes the human nasopharynx, where it can be carried asymptomatically. SARS - respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus, last reported in Tuberculosis - A disease caused by a bacterium that usually attacks the lungs. Varicella - A disease commonly known as chickenpox that is caused by a virus.

The most common symptom is a skin rash found mostly on the face, scalp, and trunk. All rights reserved. Information Maine. Tools If content on this page is inaccessible, and you need the information in a different format, visit the DHHS Tools page for assistance. Subscribe to Public Health related topics.

Everything you need to know about communicable diseases

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Malaria is a life-threatening disease. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When this mosquito bites you, the parasite is released into your bloodstream. Once the parasites are inside your body, they travel to the liver , where they mature.

combining health promotion, disease prevention and patient treatment. nurses and midwives regarding infections and infectious diseases and their prevention which can cause human disease. different types of sterilizers and disinfector.

All About Common Skin Disorders

These infectious microscopic organisms are known as pathogens, and they can multiply quickly. Examples of pathogens include:. They can spread in several different ways, including through:. In this article, we explain the different types of infections, how to reduce the risk of infection, and what symptoms they cause. Stay informed with live updates on the current COVID outbreak and visit our coronavirus hub for more advice on prevention and treatment.

Skin disorders vary greatly in symptoms and severity. They can be temporary or permanent, and may be painless or painful. Some have situational causes, while others may be genetic.


  • transmission. 2. Identify typical signs and symptoms of viral diseases genomes when two different strains of flu Treatment, prevention, and control Both forms usually transmitted by direct and fairly pathogens and AIDS related cancers. Aglae C. - 08.05.2021 at 00:36
  • A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Jimmy F. - 12.05.2021 at 12:38