Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism pdf

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Counseling Treatment Plan Template Pdf treatment plan, consulting, continuing assessment and treatment planning k Individual counseling l Group counseling m Substance use disorder counseling for families, couples and significant others n Patient, family and community education o Developmental psychology p Psychopathology and abnormal psychology. Be sure to break your line up the way it should be read, for balance and proportion, ensure the thickness of the elements in accordance with the weight of the. This resource provides a template for creating a Section 3 Plan. Below is a generic therapy contract that you can customise for your practice. Problem Date.

Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism

Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol that results in significant mental or physical health problems. Excessive alcohol use can damage all organ systems, but it particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas and immune system.

Environmental factors and genetics are two factors affecting risk for alcoholism, with about half the risk attributed to each.

Prevention of alcoholism may be attempted by regulating and limiting the sale of alcohol particularly to minors , taxing alcohol to increase its cost, and providing education and inexpensive treatment. Prohibition did not work. The risk of alcohol dependence begins at low levels of drinking and increases directly with both the volume of alcohol consumed and a pattern of drinking larger amounts on an occasion , to the point of intoxication, which is sometimes called "binge drinking".

The physical dependency caused by alcohol can lead to an affected individual having a very strong urge to drink alcohol.

These characteristics play a role in decreasing an alcoholic's ability to stop drinking. A depressed mood is a common symptom of heavy alcohol drinkers. Warning signs of alcoholism include the consumption of increasing amounts of alcohol and frequent intoxication, preoccupation with drinking to the exclusion of other activities, promises to quit drinking and failure to keep those promises, the inability to remember what was said or done while drinking colloquially known as "blackouts" , personality changes associated with drinking, denial or the making of excuses for drinking, the refusal to admit excessive drinking, dysfunction or other problems at work or school, the loss of interest in personal appearance or hygiene, marital and economic problems, and the complaint of poor health, with loss of appetite, respiratory infections, or increased anxiety.

Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration BAC of 0. A BAC of 0. A BAC from 0. With all alcoholic beverages, drinking while driving , operating an aircraft or heavy machinery increases the risk of an accident; many countries have penalties for drunk driving.

Having more than one drink a day for women or two drinks for men increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure , atrial fibrillation , and stroke. About 3. Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease , malabsorption , alcoholic liver disease , and several cancers. Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption.

Women develop long-term complications of alcohol dependence more rapidly than do men. Additionally, women have a higher mortality rate from alcoholism than men.

Additionally, heavy drinking over time has been found to have a negative effect on reproductive functioning in women. This results in reproductive dysfunction such as anovulation , decreased ovarian mass, problems or irregularity of the menstrual cycle , and early menopause. Equal dosages of alcohol consumed by men and women generally result in women having higher blood alcohol concentrations BACs , since women generally have a lower weight and higher percentage of body fat and therefore a lower volume of distribution for alcohol than men.

Long-term misuse of alcohol can cause a wide range of mental health problems. Severe cognitive problems are common; approximately 10 percent of all dementia cases are related to alcohol consumption, making it the second leading cause of dementia.

The social skills that are impaired by alcohol use disorder include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, prosody , perception problems, and theory of mind deficits; the ability to understand humor is also impaired in people who misuse alcohol.

The most prevalent psychiatric symptoms are anxiety and depression disorders. Psychiatric symptoms usually initially worsen during alcohol withdrawal, but typically improve or disappear with continued abstinence. The co-occurrence of major depressive disorder and alcoholism is well documented.

Women who have alcohol-use disorders often have a co-occurring psychiatric diagnosis such as major depression , anxiety , panic disorder , bulimia , post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , or borderline personality disorder. Serious social problems arise from alcohol use disorder; these dilemmas are caused by the pathological changes in the brain and the intoxicating effects of alcohol.

Drinking at inappropriate times and behavior caused by reduced judgment can lead to legal consequences, such as criminal charges for drunk driving [62] or public disorder, or civil penalties for tortious behavior. An alcoholic's behavior and mental impairment while drunk can profoundly affect those surrounding him and lead to isolation from family and friends. This isolation can lead to marital conflict and divorce , or contribute to domestic violence.

Alcoholism can also lead to child neglect , with subsequent lasting damage to the emotional development of the alcoholic's children. For example, they can become afraid of their parents, because of their unstable mood behaviors. In addition, they can develop considerable amount of shame over their inadequacy to liberate their parents from alcoholism. As a result of this failure, they develop wretched self-images, which can lead to depression.

As with similar substances with a sedative-hypnotic mechanism, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines , withdrawal from alcohol dependence can be fatal if it is not properly managed. With repeated heavy consumption of alcohol, these receptors are desensitized and reduced in number, resulting in tolerance and physical dependence. When alcohol consumption is stopped too abruptly, the person's nervous system suffers from uncontrolled synapse firing.

This can result in symptoms that include anxiety , life-threatening seizures , delirium tremens , hallucinations, shakes and possible heart failure. Severe acute withdrawal symptoms such as delirium tremens and seizures rarely occur after 1-week post cessation of alcohol.

The acute withdrawal phase can be defined as lasting between one and three weeks. In the period of 3—6 weeks following cessation, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbance are common. A kindling effect also occurs in alcoholics whereby each subsequent withdrawal syndrome is more severe than the previous withdrawal episode; this is due to neuroadaptations which occur as a result of periods of abstinence followed by re-exposure to alcohol.

Individuals who have had multiple withdrawal episodes are more likely to develop seizures and experience more severe anxiety during withdrawal from alcohol than alcohol-dependent individuals without a history of past alcohol withdrawal episodes. The kindling effect leads to persistent functional changes in brain neural circuits as well as to gene expression.

For example, the CIWA-Ar objectifies alcohol withdrawal symptoms in order to guide therapy decisions which allows for an efficient interview while at the same time retaining clinical usefulness, validity, and reliability, ensuring proper care for withdrawal patients, who can be in danger of death.

A complex combination of genetic and environmental factors influences the risk of the development of alcoholism. Drinking excessive alcohol during childhood or adolescence, is a risk factor, or to have low autoestime, thus to be someone with antisocial, addictive or wrathful behaviour, so as also minimize or naturalize so much alcohol misuse, alcohol dependence and the long-term effects of alcohol or also the short-term effects of alcohol consumption in the human body, is very known that some people depending of their life perspective or outlook can have more or less probabilities of to have drinking problems [73] Genes that influence the metabolism of alcohol also influence the risk of alcoholism, as can a family history of alcoholism.

These genetic and epigenetic results are regarded as consistent with large longitudinal population studies finding that the younger the age of drinking onset, the greater the prevalence of lifetime alcohol dependence. Severe childhood trauma is also associated with a general increase in the risk of drug dependency. Cortical degeneration due to the neurotoxic effects increases impulsive behaviour, which may contribute to the development, persistence and severity of alcohol use disorders.

There is evidence that with abstinence, there is a reversal of at least some of the alcohol induced central nervous system damage. Alcohol is the most available, distributed, imported, exported, sold, labeled, legal, socially accepted, consumed, and misused psychoactive drug in the world. Beer alone is one of the most widely consumed drinks in the world, along with coffee and tea.

Males had higher rates than females for all measures of drinking in the past month: any alcohol use There are genetic variations that affect the risk for alcoholism. African Americans and Native Americans with this allele have a reduced risk of developing alcoholism. Misuse, problem use, abuse, and heavy use of alcohol refer to improper use of alcohol, which may cause physical, social, or moral harm to the drinker.

According to the NIAAA, men may be at risk for alcohol-related problems if their alcohol consumption exceeds 14 standard drinks per week or 4 drinks per day, and women may be at risk if they have more than 7 standard drinks per week or 3 drinks per day. It defines a standard drink as one ounce bottle of beer, one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1.

An inference drawn from this study is that evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services may effectively reduce binge drinking without requiring addiction treatment in most cases.

The term alcoholism is commonly used amongst laypeople, but the word is poorly defined. Despite the imprecision inherent in the term, there have been attempts to define how the word alcoholism should be interpreted when encountered.

In , it was defined by the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence NCADD and ASAM as "a primary, chronic disease characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking.

The WHO calls alcoholism "a term of long-standing use and variable meaning", and use of the term was disfavored by a WHO expert committee. In professional and research contexts, the term "alcoholism" is not currently favored, but rather alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, or alcohol use disorder are used. This will lead to harmful consequences in their life, physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. He looks at this in four phases.

The first two are considered "normal" drinking and the last two are viewed as "typical" alcoholic drinking. The two manuals use similar but not identical nomenclature to classify alcohol problems. Attitudes and social stereotypes can create barriers to the detection and treatment of alcohol use disorder. This is more of a barrier for women than men. Fear of stigmatization may lead women to deny that they are suffering from a medical condition, to hide their drinking, and to drink alone.

This pattern, in turn, leads family, physicians, and others to be less likely to suspect that a woman they know has alcohol use disorder. This pattern, in turn, leads family, physicians, and others to be more likely to suspect that a man they know is an alcoholic. Screening is recommended among those over the age of These tools are mostly self-reports in questionnaire form.

Another common theme is a score or tally that sums up the general severity of alcohol use. The CAGE questionnaire , named for its four questions, is one such example that may be used to screen patients quickly in a doctor's office. Other tests are sometimes used for the detection of alcohol dependence, such as the Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire , which is a more sensitive diagnostic test than the CAGE questionnaire.

It helps distinguish a diagnosis of alcohol dependence from one of heavy alcohol use. Like the CAGE questionnaire, it uses a simple set of questions — a high score earning a deeper investigation. There are reliable tests for the actual use of alcohol, one common test being that of blood alcohol content BAC. With regard to alcoholism, BAC is useful to judge alcohol tolerance , which in turn is a sign of alcoholism.

However, none of these blood tests for biological markers is as sensitive as screening questionnaires. The World Health Organization , the European Union and other regional bodies, national governments and parliaments have formed alcohol policies in order to reduce the harm of alcoholism.

Credible, evidence-based educational campaigns in the mass media about the consequences of alcohol misuse have been recommended.

Guidelines for parents to prevent alcohol misuse amongst adolescents, and for helping young people with mental health problems have also been suggested. Treatments are varied because there are multiple perspectives of alcoholism. Those who approach alcoholism as a medical condition or disease recommend differing treatments from, for instance, those who approach the condition as one of social choice.

Since alcoholism involves multiple factors which encourage a person to continue drinking, they must all be addressed to successfully prevent a relapse. An example of this kind of treatment is detoxification followed by a combination of supportive therapy, attendance at self-help groups, and ongoing development of coping mechanisms.

Much of the treatment community for alcoholism supports an abstinence-based zero tolerance approach; however, some prefer a harm-reduction approach. Alcohol detoxification or 'detox' for alcoholics is an abrupt stop of alcohol drinking coupled with the substitution of drugs, such as benzodiazepines , that have similar effects to prevent alcohol withdrawal. Individuals who are only at risk of mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms can be detoxified as outpatients. Individuals at risk of a severe withdrawal syndrome as well as those who have significant or acute comorbid conditions are generally treated as inpatients.

Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Skip to content Ontario. The issue of human violence is also a major topic within the academic discipline of psychology. As biosocial theorists do, psychologists focus on how individual characteristics may interact with the social environment to produce a violent event. However, rather than focus on the biological basis of crime, psychologists focus on how mental processes impact individual propensities for violence. Psychologists are often interested in the association between learning, intelligence, and personality and aggressive behaviour. In this section of the report, we briefly review some of the major psychological perspectives that have attempted to explain violent behaviour. These perspectives include the psychodynamic perspective, behavioural theory, cognitive theory and personality theory.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Introduction Health behaviours result in oral health problems.


useful introduction to the extensive literature. The remaining seven chapters deal with beginning treatment, inpatient and outpatient treatment modali-.


Substance abuse

Over the years, psychological principles have contributed to the development of many theories about substance use disorders and addiction. Learning theories represent one set of psychological principles that have had a strong influence on our understanding of the causes of addiction, as well as informing some of our intervention strategies. Relevant learning theories include both operant and classical conditioning principles. Certain areas of the brain may be triggered just by seeing the paraphernalia used to administer a drug, inducing an intense craving for the drug. The craving trigger stimulus from the environment might involve any of the five senses: hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, or tasting.

Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol that results in significant mental or physical health problems. Excessive alcohol use can damage all organ systems, but it particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas and immune system. Environmental factors and genetics are two factors affecting risk for alcoholism, with about half the risk attributed to each.

When a painful truth or reality is too much for us to bear, you can be sure that an ego defense mechanism will jump in to save you. Find more ways to say defense mechanism, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus. These feelings are unacceptable and make us uncomfortable, so we reduce anxiety by projecting these feelings onto another person. Another word for defense mechanism.

Ch. 1: Introduction to Psychological Models of Addiction

Seven of the original authors and NCDA panelists have contributed to a brief case conceptualization that vividly illustrates the similarities and differences in their approaches to working with clients. For this treatment plan and case conceptualization, we shall incorporate the strategic family therapy.

Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism

Substance abuse , also known as drug abuse , is use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal or anti-social behaviour occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well. Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol , amphetamines , barbiturates , benzodiazepines , cannabis , cocaine , hallucinogens , methaqualone , and opioids. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, with the two predominant theories being: either a genetic disposition which is learned from others, or a habit which if addiction develops, manifests itself as a chronic debilitating disease. Public health practitioners have attempted to look at substance use from a broader perspective than the individual, emphasizing the role of society, culture, and availability.

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Ей еще не приходилось слышать, чтобы он так. - Что значит - пробовал. Стратмор развернул монитор так, чтобы Сьюзан было. Экран отливал странным темно-бордовым цветом, и в самом его низу диалоговое окно отображало многочисленные попытки выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. После каждой из них следовал один и тот же ответ: ИЗВИНИТЕ.


Updating and expanding the classic Psychological Theories of Drinking and Alcoholism, this fully revised second edition incorporates state-of-the-art presentati.


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