Food and its nutritional value pdf
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- The Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Chia Seeds—Current State of Knowledge
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration
- Nutritional Composition of Meat
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration
The data that support the findings of this study are available upon request to the corresponding author. Nutritional fact study has prime importance to make the species edible and commercially viable to the food consumers. This is the first report that indicates the chemical characterization, functional, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Cymodocea nodosa to evaluate its nutritional status. Physico-chemical determination was determined by colorimetric and spectroscopic analysis.
The Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Chia Seeds—Current State of Knowledge
See the Latest Publications. Browse All Publications. Download PDF. Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph. Food and Nutrition Specialist. Krystle McNeal, R. B eans are among the most versatile and commonly eaten foods throughout the world, and many varieties are grown in the U. Because of their nutritional composition, these economical foods have the potential to improve the diet quality and long-term health of those who consume beans regularly [1, 2, 3]. The purpose of this publication is to provide evidence-based nutrition and health information about beans, preparation tips, sample recipes and references for further study.
Dry edible beans, such as pinto, navy, kidney, pink and black beans, are part of the legume family. A legume plant produces seeds in a pod; dry beans are the mature seeds within these pods. Other members of the legume family include lentils, peas, chickpeas, peanuts and soybeans . As shown in Tables 1 and 2, dry edible beans are nutrient-rich foods; they contain a variety of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients while providing a moderate amount of calories. Beans provide protein, fiber, folate, iron, potassium and magnesium while containing little or no total fat, trans-fat, sodium and cholesterol [5, 6].
Because of their high concentration of health-promoting nutrients, consuming more beans in the American diet could improve overall health and also decrease the risk of developing certain diseases, including heart disease, obesity and many types of cancers.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend consuming 1. Nutrition experts recommend that adults consume 25 to 38 grams g of dietary fiber per day 14 g per 1, calories ; however, the majority of Americans do not reach this recommendation consistently .
Dietary fiber intake contributes to feelings of fullness or satiety and helps maintain functioning of the digestive system [7, 9]. Beans are a rich source of soluble and insoluble fiber. The consumption of fiber also has been associated with decreasing total and low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, as well decreasing the risk for developing coronary heart disease, metabolic syndrome, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and some gastrointestinal diseases [9, 10, 11, 12].
The B vitamin folate is found prominently in beans . Adequate intake of folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of neural tube defects significantly in newborns .
Synthetic folic acid is better absorbed in the body than naturally occurring folate. Some folate can be lost from dry beans and other legumes during the soaking and cooking process or can be reduced when the vitamin interacts with other food components, such as fiber [14, 15]. Quick-soaking beans boiling beans for a short time and then soaking for one hour may lead to more folate losses than a more traditional long soak. In general, to maximize the natural folate content in beans, some researchers suggest using the slow-soak method and a cooking method that prepares the beans in minutes or less .
Table 1. Nutrient content of selected beans compared with recommendations on food labels. Table 2. Vitamin and mineral content of selected beans compared with recommendations on food labels. Sources: Food and Drug Administration; U. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service [6, 8]. Elevated blood levels of triglycerides and cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, are significant contributing factors to heart disease .
High plasma levels of homocysteine have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Although some studies have shown that folate may lower homocysteine levels and, therefore, heart disease risk, the topic remains controversial and more research is needed [16, 17].
A varied diet low in saturated fat with ample fiber especially soluble and B vitamins are among the recommendations for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors . Several studies have shown that regular consumption of beans can help lower total and LDL cholesterol and other risk factors for heart disease [19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25].
One study showed a 38 percent lower risk of nonfatal heart attack when a cup of cooked beans was consumed daily . Other researchers reported significant reductions in blood cholesterol levels when canned beans were consumed on a daily basis [19, 24].
Participants consuming black-eyed peas or carrots did not experience a significant change in total or LDL cholesterol. Pinto beans and other dry edible beans contain significantly more dietary fiber specifically soluble fiber than black-eyed peas and carrots, likely resulting in this decrease in cholesterol . Diabetes is becoming more prevalent throughout the world as the global obesity epidemic continues.
Eating a variety of legumes, including beans, may be valuable not only in the prevention of diabetes but also in the management of blood sugar levels . Beans are rich in complex carbohydrates such as dietary fiber , which are digested more slowly. As a result, bean consumption has been shown to increase feelings of fullness and help regulate plasma glucose and insulin levels after meals .
Legume fiber was among the fiber types associated with reducing risk for metabolic syndrome, which includes glucose disturbances and increased risk of diabetes . According to a recent study, regularly consuming beans as part of a low-glycemic-index diet improved blood glucose management, reduced systolic blood pressure and decreased risk of coronary heart disease . Participants with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were placed randomly on a high-legume diet consuming 1 cup per day or on a high-insoluble-fiber diet with whole-wheat foods.
Hemoglobin A1c HbA1c , a measure of long-term glycemic control, was measured after three months. The group consuming the high-legume diet experienced a significant decrease in HbA1c and reduced their calculated heart disease risk scores . The role of bean-containing diets related to cancer risk has been the subject of ongoing studies . Eating beans may reduce the risk for developing certain types of cancers due to their contribution of bioactive compounds to the diet, including flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds and other antioxidants .
These compounds act to decrease the risk of cancer, as well as other chronic diseases. Other researchers have shown that beans may have a synergistic effect when consumed in a diet containing other antioxidant-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables by decreasing oxidation in the body and reducing the overall cancer risk . Bean intake has been associated with a decreased risk of breast, stomach, colorectal, kidney and prostate cancers in human and animal studies [33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39].
In particular, the dietary fiber content of beans may play a role in reducing the risk of colorectal cancers . For example, a study that examined the impact of dietary fiber intake on the development of colon polyps in a cancer survivor cohort found that people who consumed more fiber, specifically fiber from legumes and cooked green vegetables, including green beans and peas, were less likely to show a recurrence of polyps than others .
Beans are high in natural antioxidants . The color of the bean coat appears to affect the antioxidant capacity because this correlates with total phenolic content of the bean. Colored beans red, brown or black possess greater antioxidant activity than white beans . Furthermore, some of these antioxidant compounds are lost during typical preparation and cooking methods, although significant amounts of antioxidants still remain .
Even though beans are not often promoted as a weight-loss food, regularly consuming nutrient-rich legumes may impact weight loss or management, although more research is needed [43, 44, 45, 46]. According to results from the National Health Nutrition Examination Survey to , people who consumed beans regularly had a lower body weight, lower waist circumference and lower systolic blood pressure, in addition to a greater intake of dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, iron and copper .
According to the results of studies conducted in Brazil, a traditional diet high in rice and beans was associated with a lower body mass index BMI , compared with a typical Western diet containing more fat, snacks and soda [47, 48]. In a study of 35 obese men fed four different protein-rich diets, the diet providing the majority of protein from legumes including beans induced the greatest amount of weight loss in an eight-week period.
The group instructed to eat legumes at least four days a week also experienced significant reductions in waist circumference, body fat mass, blood pressure and total cholesterol when compared with the other groups .
Researchers have studied the role of hormones, including leptin and ghrelin, in regulating appetite and weight.
Researchers determined the leptin and ghrelin levels in 36 insulin-sensitive and 28 insulin-resistant men. Leptin levels decreased among the group consuming a diet enriched with legumes. When leptin is present in smaller concentrations, it is more effective in regulating appetite and may aid in weight loss and weight maintenance . Childhood obesity is a continuing concern in North America and around the world, reaching epidemic proportions.
Many strategies have been suggested to prevent and treat obesity during the childhood years, usually focusing on restricting caloric intake. Incorporating beans into the diet of children can help children maintain healthy weights, as well as promote overall health. Most children do not consume the recommended amount of dietary fiber in their diets . Because of the role fiber plays in satiety, inadequate fiber intake may contribute greatly to overeating high empty-calorie foods and weight gain .
The U. An increasing number of people are following special diets, such vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free diets. While each special diet has different requirements, a common factor among them is that certain foods that normally would provide vital nutrients are eliminated.
Beans can play a role in providing a variety of nutrients for individuals following these diets. For example, people with celiac disease should consume a diet that is free of gluten, a protein found in many grain products. They must eliminate these products from their diet, which increases the risk for deficiencies in several B-vitamins and other nutrients that typically are found in grains . Beans are a naturally gluten-free food, and they provide many of the same vitamins and minerals often found in enriched grain products, including thiamin, riboflavin, folate, iron and fiber.
Bean flour may be particularly beneficial to those following gluten-free diets because bean flours can be combined with other gluten-free flours such as rice or tapioca flour. Those following vegetarian or vegan diets depend on plant foods to provide important nutrients often found in animal products, such as protein, iron and zinc.
While vegetarians may consume dairy or eggs, those following a vegan diet consume no animal-based products. Those following a vegan diet may eat less saturated fat, cholesterol and more dietary fiber; however, those following a vegan diet may be lacking in vitamin B, vitamin D, calcium or omega-3 fats unless they consume appropriate supplements . Beans can be a valuable part of any plant-based diet because they are rich in several nutrients and serve as a meat-alternative and contain the full complement of amino acids when paired with grains.
As shown in Table 3, beans provide a variety of nutrients at a relatively low cost compared with other protein-rich foods . According to the Nutrient Rich Foods Index, a tool that scores foods based on their nutrient content, which then can be compared to food price databases, beans and legumes are among the best foods in terms of amount of nutrients per unit price .
Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Retail data for beef, pork, poultry cuts, eggs and dairy products. Retrieved on March 15, , from www. Numerous bean market classes are available in the U.
While different beans do not vary greatly in nutrient content, they do differ slightly in taste, texture and cooking times. The following chart describes nine of the most common beans found in American grocery stores and lists some common cuisines using beans.
The cooking time refers to the amount of time to cook dry beans. Dry beans offer nutrition, health and economic benefits. However, you need to follow certain steps to ensure dry beans are cooked properly.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
In order to encourage retail stores that sell raw fruits, vegetables, and fish to participate in the voluntary point-of-purchase nutrition information program 21 CFR These posters show nutrition information for the 20 most frequently consumed raw fruits, vegetables, and fish in the United States. The list of food items with nutrition information reflects the updates published in the Federal Register of August 17, 71 FR FDA also encourages consumers to view the posters. A text html version is also available for online viewing.
Meat ranks among one of the most significant, nutritious and favored food item available to masses, which aids in fulfilling most of their body requirements. It has played a vital role in human evolution and is an imperative constituent of a well-balanced diet. It is a good source of proteins, zinc, iron, selenium, and phosphorus followed by vitamin A and B-complex vitamins. Meat fat and its fatty acid profile is point to worry, with respect to its consumption, but its moderate usage is always advised by doctors and nutritionists, in order to lead a healthy life. Quality traits of meat along with its nutritional composition become dependent upon animal breed type, feeding source grains, pasture and grass , genetics of animal and post mortem techniques.
commons”. Algunas de ellas han sido modificadas. PDF. FORMATO. Eufemia Rosso Delgado. AUTORÍA The main nutrients are: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals I am not sure. I think we should change it. Let me think. I think it's true. the following text and explain the nutritional value of the product.
Nutritional Composition of Meat
Chia Salvia hispanica is an annual herbaceous plant, the seeds of which were consumed already thousands of years ago. Current research results indicate a high nutritive value for chia seeds and confirm their extensive health-promoting properties. Research indicates that components of chia seeds are ascribed a beneficial effect on the improvement of the blood lipid profile, through their hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial and immunostimulatory effects.
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U.S. Food and Drug Administration
See the Latest Publications. Browse All Publications. Download PDF. Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph. Food and Nutrition Specialist. Krystle McNeal, R.
You should choose a diet made of nutrient-rich foods. Nutrient-rich or nutrient-dense foods are low in sugar, sodium, starches, and bad fats. They contain a lot of vitamins and minerals and few calories. Your body needs vitamins and minerals, known as micronutrients.
the PDF version of these slides from the Training 2 folder on this CD-ROM.) This session focuses group. It also introduces the Nutrition Facts food label in more depth. group enters its points on its scorecard in the related category column.
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Vitamin E Vitamin K. Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Water Ash. Proline Serine Threonine Tyrosine Valine. Beef Products Beverages Breakfast Cereals. Vegetables and Vegetable Products. Find Nutritional Value of a Product.
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