Conflict between india and pakistan an encyclopedia pdf
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- PDF Conflict Between India and Pakistan An Encyclopedia Read Full Ebook
- Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia, 1st Edition
This up-to-date encyclopedia examines the conflict between India and Pakistan from Independence to the present day, with an authoritative treatment that presents the issues evenhandedly and from both countries' perspectives. Tensions between India and Pakistan are deeply rooted. Many go back to or earlier, when, with the partitioning of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal, British India was succeeded by two independent countries: a primarily Hindu India and a Muslim Pakistan. Subsequently, the two countries have fought three wars and come close to open war several other times, especially over Kashmir. Then, in a series of evenhanded, carefully crafted portraits, it describes the people, political parties, foreign and domestic policies, and economic, religious, and cultural pressures that have played a role in the conflicts between these nations from to the present. The series format, consisting of a preface that outlines the issues and importance, the alphabetically arranged encyclopedia entries, epilogue, detailed chronology, appendixes, glossary, index, and extensive bibliography, are all well done. Unlike many encyclopedias whose entries are supplied by a large number of contributors, all elements of this volume are completed by a single author who brings his impeccable credentials to the task.
PDF Conflict Between India and Pakistan An Encyclopedia Read Full Ebook
Kashmir , region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. It is bounded by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang to the northeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east both parts of China , by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, by Pakistan to the west, and by Afghanistan to the northwest. The region, with a total area of some 85, square miles , square km , has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir , Gilgit , and Baltistan , the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. In addition, China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the s and has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh the easternmost portion of the region since
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The region of Kashmir is one of the most volatile areas in the world. The nations of India and Pakistan have fiercely contested each other over Kashmir, fighting three major wars and two minor wars. It has gained immense international attention given the fact that both India and Pakistan are nuclear powers and this conflict represents a threat to global security. To understand this conflict, it is essential to look back into the history of the area. In August of , India and Pakistan were on the cusp of independence from the British.
This up-to-date encyclopedia examines the conflict between India and Pakistan from Independence to the present day, with an authoritative treatment that.
Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia, 1st Edition
Since the Partition of British India in and subsequent creation of the dominions of India and Pakistan , the two countries have been involved in a number of wars, conflicts, and military standoffs. A long-running dispute over Kashmir and cross-border terrorism have been the predominant cause of conflict between the two states, with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of , which occurred as a direct result of hostilities stemming from the Bangladesh Liberation War in erstwhile East Pakistan now Bangladesh. The Partition of India came about in the aftermath of World War II , when both Great Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilisation. Nearly one third of the Muslim population of British India remained in India.
The relations between the two countries have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in which started the Kashmir conflict , and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion. Northern India and Pakistan somewhat overlap in certain demographics and shared lingua francas mainly Punjabi , Sindhi , and Hindustani. After the dissolution of the British Raj in , two new sovereign nations were formed—the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
Benefits: nonmonetary compensation provided by an employer to an employee in addition to the normal wage, such as retirement benefits, sick leave, social security, and tuition reimbursement.
Первой из них были предоставляемые ею данные. Бринкерхофф терпеливо ждал, пока она изучала цифры. - Хм-м, - наконец произнесла. - Вчерашняя статистика безукоризненна: вскрыто двести тридцать семь кодов, средняя стоимость - восемьсот семьдесят четыре доллара. Среднее время, потраченное на один шифр, - чуть более шести минут. Потребление энергии на среднем уровне.
Он объяснил, что кандзи - это система японского письма, основанная на видоизмененных китайских иероглифах. Он же давал им китайские значения, потому что такую задачу они перед ним поставили. - Господи Иисусе. - Морант закашлялся. - Давайте попробуем кандзи.
Чаша была уже совсем близко, когда Халохот заметил человека в пиджаке и брюках разного цвета. - Estas ya muerto, - тихо прошептал он, двигаясь по центральному проходу. Ты уже мертвец. Времени на какие-либо уловки уже не. Два выстрела в спину, схватить кольцо и исчезнуть.
В течение нескольких секунд ни он, ни она не произнесли ни слова. Наконец Стратмор откинулся на спинку стула, и Сьюзан поняла, что он постепенно успокаивается. Когда он наконец заговорил, голос его звучал подчеркнуто ровно, хотя было очевидно, что это давалось ему нелегко.