Air pollution and climate change in lahore 2018 pdf
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- Pakistan: Climate change, environmental problems put government in a bind
- Breathing in poison – Lahore’s growing air pollution problem
- Climate change in Pakistan
Download: PDF. Cite this article: Schwela, D. Aerosol Air Qual.
Pakistan: Climate change, environmental problems put government in a bind
Particulate matter PM 2. Rafiq Khan II ; S. Rahman I ; Shoaib Shafique I. The work reported in this paper was carried out to study the trends of PM 2. Total samples were collected during the period under study, i.
High PM 2. It is, therefore, concluded that in addition to local vehicular and industrial emissions, the city is also affected from trans-boundary air pollutants particularly due to secondary aerosols especially SO 4 2- during winter which increase PM 2. Keywords: airborne particulate matter, source apportionment, PM 2. Amostras de PM 2.
Urban atmosphere, in general, is highly convoluted and assorted because of the wide variability in the type, intensity, density and spatial distribution of emission sources. Aerosol particles, due to their relatively small size may remain airborne for several days so transported over large distances and are, therefore, ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Air pollution primarily affects urban areas, where the density of buildings, existence of industries and presence of a large number of vehicles prevent dispersion of pollutants.
Thus, the studies on air quality date back to the point of extensive awareness about the present and the future hazards of air pollution. The detrimental effects of particulates on human health have been studied in various urban centers across Europe, United States of America and many other countries. Dockery et al. There are many reports on the negative impact of PM 2. It is well understood that aerosols also have serious regional climatic implications.
They can modify the climate forcing by altering the radiative heating of the planet and cloud properties. Therefore, long term study of PM 2.
The work undertaken by SUPARCO is still in progress and on the basis of the reports highlighted above, less polluting energy sources are being explored, e. The present study is aimed at studying diurnal and seasonal concentration of PM 2.
For the purpose of monitoring fine particulate matter PM 2. Lahore is the second largest city of the country bordering India. The study site should represent the local and distant sources of air pollution. Therefore the selected site for this study is ideal because it is downwind to the city. The well planned canal road is at distance of one km from the sampling site for this study. Different industrial activities in the vicinity 2 to 6 km of the sampling site are taking place in "Hanjarwal", "Multan Road", "Township" and "Kot Lakhpat" Figure 1.
The sampling was performed at a height of 10 meter from the ground level. From November 22, to December 23, , the 12 h daytime sampling was divided into two intervals: 'morning' from to h and 'evening' from to h, whereas the 'night' samples were collected for 12 h from to h. From December 24, to March 10, the 'morning' and 'evening' sampling times were shifted to to h and to h, respectively while the nighttime samples were collected for 12 h from to h.
For the yearlong data from November 29, to December 17, sampling was done at 12 h intervals. The samples were collected on 47 mm pre-weighed Zefluor TM filter papers at constant air flow rate of The samples collected from November to March were analyzed for ions and trace metals.
Model based data analysis. Backward air trajectories were used to assess the origin of the pollutants collected at the receptor site. Receptor based multivariate source apportionment models use chemical composition of fine particulate matter measured at receptor site s to determine correlation among them assuming that highly correlated species come from a common source.
Further, the quantitative contribution of each species to each source obtained from the PMF results was utilized to quantify the contribution of each source to PM 2. A general receptor model assumes there are p sources contributing to a receptor site. This can be mathematically stated as. To estimate the contributions g ik and source profiles f kj , PMF uses constrained, weighted, least squares method. The task of EPA PMF is to minimize the sum of squares of standardized residual divided by corresponding uncertainty value residuals Q :.
Equation 1 can also be written in matrix form as. Matrix of the measured concentrations 'X' and uncertainty matrix 'S' are the inputs for the PMF model whereas the matrices 'G', 'F' and 'E' are obtained as output data.
The source contribution matrix "G" was further utilized for source apportionment by taking into account the measured PM 2. To perform the quantitative source apportionment, a scaling coefficient, y k , is introduced in the model equation 1 so that. Constant of linear regression was assumed to be zero. After determination of y k values, the final scaled source contributions were determined. Results and Discussion. The results are reported at two levels. At the first level, the seasonal variation of PM 2.
The contribution of various sources is also discussed. Seasonal PM 2. During February to March , PM 2. After a gap of seven months the PM 2. The particulate concentration showed marked seasonal variations. Comparatively high and alarming levels were recorded in winter December-February. These levels varied from Some higher levels ranging from However, a sharp decrease in particles PM 2.
The observed PM 2. A 2 to 8 times excess from the standard limit was observed in summer. Annual arithmetic mean of PM 2. Alarmingly high PM 2. The visibility in Lahore and its adjoining areas during winter is often as low as 50 meters. Luckily, during heavy monsoon seasons in Lahore, the suspended particulates are washed away in the rainy days. Therefore, a steeper decline in PM 2. Each air trajectory was computed 72 h back in time at a height of m.
On 21 st and 23 rd December, Figure 3 a and b , when high PM 2. This trend may be explained on the assumption that the wind direction from east and south-east has strong influence on fine particulate pollution load especially due to increased concentration of sulfate during foggy days. In the air parcel coming from east and north on December 20, , the PM 2.
It appears that apart from the distant sources, the local industrial and vehicular emissions, emissions from brick kilns and indiscriminate burning of agricultural and solid waste also contribute to the PM 2. Analytical results of PM 2. The analytical results of PM 2. Factor 1 includes Al, Ca, K which refer to soil and road side dust Figure 4.
The average evening ng m -3 and nighttime Calcium concentration in the evening Higher K concentration was recorded at night ng m -3 as compared to the evening ng m -3 and daytime ng m -3 concentrations. Factor 2 comprises Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Sn referring to industrial emissions originating principally from ferrous metal sources.
Factor 2 has high loading percentage for Cr, Mo and Ni. The average concentrations of Cr, Mo and Ni were highest in daytime, i. The possible source for Factor 2 may be industrial emissions from iron and steel industry or ferrous smelters. A relatively higher contribution of Factor 2 in PM 2. The concentrations of Zn and Pb were higher and Factor 3 represents vehicular emissions especially those from two stroke engines. Vehicular emissions and battery manufacturing are two major sources of airborne lead.
Zn, Cd, Sb, Ba and Pb are emitted from road traffic in considerable quantities. Zn is emitted from lubrication oil, brake linings and tyres, whereas, metal wear particles from Cd-bearing alloys are also emitted. Therefore, a rapid decrease in Pb level was expected to be observed. On the contrary, a high Pb concentration was recorded. This is likely to be due to rapid increase in private car ownership because of bank leasing facilities, use of adulterated fuel, traffic jams and soil deposited Pb etc.
The day time mean Pb level It was found that Cd and Sb, despite their short history as traffic-emitted metals, have increased more than eight times in roadside soils as compared to background levels. Secondary sulfates have been identified and characterized by a high concentration. These secondary aerosol particulate could be largely from coal and biomass combustion in the rural areas of Lahore.
The precursor gas of nitrate, NO X is emitted by vehicles and stationary sources such as thermal electricity generating plants. The contribution of this factor, in PM 2. Source contribution to PM 2. The PM 2. Source apportionment results shown in Figure 6 display the high contribution of secondary aerosols, crustal elements and industrial emissions towards PM 2.
Breathing in poison – Lahore’s growing air pollution problem
Particulate matter PM 2. Rafiq Khan II ; S. Rahman I ; Shoaib Shafique I. The work reported in this paper was carried out to study the trends of PM 2. Total samples were collected during the period under study, i. High PM 2.
Interested in hourly forecast? Get the app. In the absence of publicly available government data, a network of citizen-operated sensors began to monitor fine particulate matter, also known as PM2. The court ordered authorities to prepare an updated smog response action plan, and publish daily pollution updates until able to publish hourly updates, as the non-government monitors do. However, the AQI has been criticized by air quality advocates as being too lax and underreporting the severity of the pollution.
Climate change in Pakistan
When she returned home, she found her children playing in a narrow alley, their eyes red and watering. Last year, almost 60, Pakistanis died from the high level of fine particulate matter in the air, among the highest death tolls in the world from air pollution, according to the World Health Organisation WHO. Although the environmental body has recommended the government mandate low-sulphur diesel and increase higher public transport use, these results have been slow to materialise.
When Nariman Qureshi returned to her home in Lahore after a week-long work trip in early November, she discovered her five-year-old daughter Anya had spent two nights in intensive care. The reason was her asthma, which had flared up severely. For Qureshi, it was the cost she had to pay for living in a city whose air quality is among the worst in the world, and which has spent last week either on top, or among the top five worst cities in the world to breathe in. I wonder if we were elsewhere, maybe that wouldn't have been the case," Qureshi says. Delhi may have been hitting the headlines this week, but by the evening of 6 November, Lahore had taken the title of the world's most unbreathable city - with an Air Quality Index AQI of , forcing the provincial government to announce closure of all schools in the province on Thursday.
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Игла похищенного у медсестры шприца блеснула в темноте и погрузилась в вену чуть выше запястья Клушара. Шприц был наполнен тридцатью кубиками моющего средства, взятого с тележки уборщицы. Сильный палец нажал на плунжер, вытолкнув синеватую жидкость в старческую вену. Клушар проснулся лишь на несколько секунд. Он успел бы вскрикнуть от боли, если бы сильная рука не зажала ему рот.
Тогда в другой. - Беккер улыбнулся и поднял коробку. - Я, пожалуй, пойду. Меня ждет самолет. - Он еще раз оглядел комнату.
Стратмор кивнул: - Он разместит его в Интернете, напечатает в газетах, на рекламных щитах.