Types of viruses and related threats pdf

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types of viruses and related threats pdf

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This page provides an overview of the most common malware applications. Malware is a catch-all term for various malicious software, including viruses, adware, spyware, browser hijacking software, and fake security software. Once installed on your computer, these programs can seriously affect your privacy and your computer's security.

Types of Computer Security Threats and How to Avoid Them

Malware is malicious software that enables unauthorized access to networks for purposes of theft, sabotage, or espionage. There are many types of malware, and many attacks use a combination of several types to achieve their goals.

Malware is usually introduced into a network through phishing , malicious attachments, or malicious downloads, but it may gain access through social engineering or flash drives as well. Want unique insights into adversaries that our threat hunters have encountered in the first half of ?

Download the Report from the OverWatch Team. While there are many different variations of malware, you are most likely to encounter the following malware types:. The victim organization is rendered partially or totally unable to operate until it pays, but there is no guarantee that payment will result in the necessary decryption key or that the decryption key provided will function properly.

This year, the city of Baltimore was hit by a type of ransomware named RobbinHood , which halted all city activities, including tax collection, property transfers, and government email for weeks. Because the operating system recognizes the edited files as legitimate, a fileless attack is not caught by antivirus software — and because these attacks are stealthy, they are up to ten times more successful than traditional malware attacks.

Fileless Malware Example:. Astaroth is a fileless malware campaign that spammed users with links to a. LNK shortcut file. When users downloaded the file, a WMIC tool was launched, along with a number of other legitimate Windows tools. These tools downloaded additional code that was executed only in memory, leaving no evidence that could be detected by vulnerability scanners.

Then the attacker downloaded and ran a Trojan that stole credentials and uploaded them to a remote server. Download our white paper to get a detailed anatomy of a fileless intrusion. This can include passwords, pins, payment information and unstructured messages. The use of spyware is not limited to the desktop browser: it can also operate in a critical app or on a mobile phone.

Even if the data stolen is not critical, the effects of spyware often ripple throughout the organization as performance is degraded and productivity eroded. Spyware Example:. DarkHotel , which targeted business and government leaders using hotel WIFI, used several types of malware in order to gain access to the systems belonging to specific powerful people. Once that access was gained, the attackers installed keyloggers to capture their targets passwords and other sensitive information.

Adware Example:. Adware called Fireball infected million computers and devices in , hijacking browsers to change default search engines and track web activity. However, the malware had the potential to become more than a mere nuisance.

Three-quarters of it was able to run code remotely and download malicious files. Download CrowdInspect: a free community tool for Microsoft Windows systems that is aimed to help alert you to the presence of potential malware are on your computer that may be communicating over the network.

Download CrowdInspect. A Trojan disguises itself as desirable code or software. Trojans may hide in games, apps, or even software patches, or they may be embedded in attachments included in phishing emails. Trojan Example:. Emotet is a sophisticated banking trojan that has been around since It is hard to fight Emotet because it evades signature-based detection, is persistent, and includes spreader modules that help it propagate.

Worms target vulnerabilities in operating systems to install themselves into networks. They may gain access in several ways: through backdoors built into software, through unintentional software vulnerabilities, or through flash drives.

Once in place, worms can be used by malicious actors to launch DDoS attacks , steal sensitive data, or conduct ransomware attacks.

Worm Example:. Once in the wild, Stuxnet spread aggressively but did little damage, since its only function was to interfere with industrial controllers that managed the uranium enrichment process. Want to stay up to date on recent adversary activities? Stop by the Research and Threat Intel Blog for the latest research, trends, and insights on emerging cyber threats. Research and Threat Intel Blog.

A virus is a piece of code that inserts itself into an application and executes when the app is run. Once inside a network, a virus may be used to steal sensitive data, launch DDoS attacks or conduct ransomware attacks.

Viruses vs. A virus cannot execute or reproduce unless the app it has infected is running. This dependence on a host application makes viruses different from trojans, which require users to download them, and worms, which do not use applications to execute. Many instances of malware fit into multiple categories: for instance, Stuxnet is a worm, a virus and a rootkit.

Rootkits can be injected into applications, kernels, hypervisors, or firmware. They spread through phishing, malicious attachments, malicious downloads, and compromised shared drives. Rootkits can also be used to conceal other malware, such as keyloggers.

Rootkit Example:. Zacinlo infects systems when users download a fake VPN app. Once installed, Zacinlo conducts a security sweep for competing malware and tries to remove it. Then it opens invisible browsers and interacts with content like a human would — by scrolling, highlighting and clicking. This activity is meant to fool behavioral analysis software.

This advertising click fraud provides malicious actors with a cut of the commission. Read Blog. A keylogger is a type of spyware that monitors user activity.

However, when installed for malicious purposes, keyloggers can be used to steal password data, banking information and other sensitive information. Keyloggers can be inserted into a system through phishing, social engineering or malicious downloads. Keylogger Example:. A bot is a software application that performs automated tasks on command. Usually, bots are used in large numbers to create a botnet , which is a network of bots used to launch broad remotely-controlled floods of attacks, such as DDoS attacks.

Botnets can become quite expansive. For example, the Mirai IoT botnet ranged from , to 2. Botnet Example:. Echobot is a variant of the well-known Mirai. In addition, the malware looks for unpatched legacy systems. Echobot could be used by malicious actors to launch DDoS attacks, interrupt supply chains, steal sensitive supply chain information and conduct corporate sabotage. Attacks targeting mobile devices have risen 50 percent since last year. Mobile malware threats are as various as those targeting desktops and include Trojans, ransomware, advertising click fraud and more.

Mobile Malware Example:. Triada is a rooting Trojan that was injected into the supply chain when millions of Android devices shipped with the malware pre-installed. Triada gains access to sensitive areas in the operating system and installs spam apps.

The spam apps display ads, sometimes replacing legitimate ads. Download the latest mobile threat report to explore why the targeting of mobile platforms is being increasingly adopted. The best approach to protect against malware is to employ a unified array of methods.

The CrowdStrike Falcon platform gives analysts and threat researchers rapid and comprehensive malware search capabilities through access to the largest and most active repository of threat events and artifacts in the industry. The repository contains a TB collection with over million files and indexes over 2 trillion events each week.

All of this data is available for real-time search — both metadata and binary content — made possible within seconds by patent-pending indexing technology. Deep analysis of evasive and unknown threats is a reality with Falcon Sandbox. Falcon Sandbox enriches malware search results with threat intelligence and delivers actionable IOCs, so security teams can better understand sophisticated malware attacks and strengthen their defenses.

Want to see how the CrowdStrike Falcon Platform blocks malware? Start a free trial and see how it performs against live malware samples. Start Free Trial. He has over 25 years of experience in senior leadership positions, specializing in emerging software companies.

He has expertise in cyber threat intelligence, security analytics, security management and advanced threat protection.

Prior to joining CrowdStrike, Baker worked in technical roles at Tripwire and had co-founded startups in markets ranging from enterprise security solutions to mobile devices. He holds a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Washington and is now based in Boston, Massachusetts. What is Malware? Example of a ransom letter. Fileless Instrusions Download our white paper to get a detailed anatomy of a fileless intrusion.

Download Now. Expert Tip Download CrowdInspect: a free community tool for Microsoft Windows systems that is aimed to help alert you to the presence of potential malware are on your computer that may be communicating over the network. Learn More Want to stay up to date on recent adversary activities? Mobile Threat Report Download the latest mobile threat report to explore why the targeting of mobile platforms is being increasingly adopted Download Report.

Get to Know the Author. Lateral Movement. Fileless Malware.

9 types of malware and how to recognize them

Appendix A. Types of Computer Threats. In a wider sense, the term "threat" may be used to indicate any type of potential danger to the security of the computer or network that is, vulnerabilities that can result in hacker attacks. Programs that do not conceal their presence e. In Doctor Web classification, all threats are divided according to the level of severity into two types:. This type of computer threats consists of software that is traditionally referred to as malware malicious software , that is, viruses, worms and Trojans.

Computer security threats are relentlessly inventive. Masters of disguise and manipulation, these threats constantly evolve to find new ways to annoy, steal and harm. Arm yourself with information and resources to safeguard against complex and growing computer security threats and stay safe online. Perhaps the most well-known computer security threat, a computer virus is a program written to alter the way a computer operates, without the permission or knowledge of the user. A virus replicates and executes itself, usually doing damage to your computer in the process. Carefully evaluating free software, downloads from peer-to-peer file sharing sites, and emails from unknown senders are crucial to avoiding viruses.


Related threats include other forms of destructive programs such as Trojan to general and specific information on various types of viruses, systems, and.


Types of Computer Security Threats and How to Avoid Them

Malware is malicious software that enables unauthorized access to networks for purposes of theft, sabotage, or espionage. There are many types of malware, and many attacks use a combination of several types to achieve their goals. Malware is usually introduced into a network through phishing , malicious attachments, or malicious downloads, but it may gain access through social engineering or flash drives as well. Want unique insights into adversaries that our threat hunters have encountered in the first half of ? Download the Report from the OverWatch Team.

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People tend to play fast and loose with security terminology. However, it's important to get your malware classifications straight because knowing how various types of malware spread is vital to containing and removing them. This concise malware bestiary will help you get your malware terms right when you hang out with geeks.

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