Impairment disability and handicap pdf

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impairment disability and handicap pdf

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Explain the relationship between impairment, disability and handicap

Handicap is a social construct. There is a biological sub-stratum, but what it means to be handicapped to others and to oneself is overwhelmingly social and decisively political" Roth, , p. Many different types of impairments and disabilities may have an impact on the use of telecommunications. Knowledge about impairments and disabilities is important to understand possible consequences for the use of telecommunications. It is also a prerequisite for designing and producing standard telecommunications equipment and services that can be used by as many people as possible, and for developing specialised equipment designed to alleviate the negative consequences of a disability.

The present chapter reviews some common impairments and disabilities. Chapter 21 reviews some specific consequences of impairments and disabilities for telecommunication use in relation to standardisation activities. Impairment: a loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function. Disability: any restriction or lack resulting from an impairment of the ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.

Handicap: a disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability, that limits or prevents the fulfilment of a role that is normal depending on age, sex, and social and culture factors for that individual. Impairments and disabilities may be temporary or permanent, reversible or irreversible, and progressive or regressive.

The situation people find themselves in may determine to what degree a disability is handicapping for them. It is evident from the definitions above that a handicap is the result both of an impairment and of environmental conditions cf. Figure 5. If environmental barriers are taken away, the person will still be impaired, but not necessarily handicapped. It should also be noted that the definition of disability as distinct from handicap is not without problems, in particular the formulation "considered normal for a human being", and many people with disabilities do not distinguish their use.

The functional ability of people who are diagnosed as having the same impairment or disability may vary widely. For example, some people who are legally blind may be able to utilize differences in light intensity, while others are unable to perceive such differences.

People who have clinically similar hearing impairments, as shown on audiograms, may use quite different aspects of the acoustic information available to them. The degree of handicap may vary significantly and may be specific to certain situations. In this brief review of impairment and disability, differences in degree are dealt with only in a very general manner.

The emphasis is on typical features rather than variations. However, when assessing the needs of a single individual, variation that may influence the handicapping effects of the condition must be taken into account. In medical terms, visual impairment can be defined as a total loss of, or reduced ability to, perceive light and colour. This means that a blind person must be at 6 metres in order to see something that a person with normal sight can see at 60 metres, or that the field of vision is so restricted that only a very limited area can be seen at one time see Figure 5.

Within this legal definition, a wide variety of visual impairments can be found. Bauman distinguishes between a visual impairment where vision is of no practical use in a testing or working situation; a visual impairment where vision is of some help in a testing or working situation, but where effective reading of even moderately enlarged print is not possible, and a visual impairment where print may be used effectively, although it may have to be large type, held very close to the eyes, or used with special visual aids and under special lighting conditions.

Blindness implies a total or near total loss of the ability to perceive form. Partial sight implies an ability to utilize some aspects of visual perception, but with a great dependency on information from other modalities, in particular touch and hearing.

Reduced vision may handicap a person in situations which put great demands on the use of vision, but in most situations the person will not be handicapped by the visual impairment; they will, for example, be able to read large type print with glasses. The incidence of all kind of visual impairment increases considerably with age.

Less than 10 percent of blind people are under 20 years of age while nearly 50 percent are 65 years or older Bauman, In addition, people older than 40 need higher light intensity and contrast than year-olds, and the difference increases dramatically between age 40 and Problems with orientation and mobility are one of the typical consequences of failing sight. In the case of elderly people, difficulties in orientation and mobility may be intensified by other cognitive impairments. Hearing impairment implies a total or partial loss of the ability to perceive acoustic information.

The impairment may affect the full range of hearing, or be limited to only parts of the auditory spectrum, which for speech perception is the region between and Hz see Figure 3. The term deaf is used to describe people with profound hearing losses while hard of hearing is used for those with mild to severe hearing losses. Hearing loss is expressed in decibel Db relative to an audiometric cero which is a standardized normal threshold of hearing. Deafness is usually defined as an average hearing loss of more than 92 Db in the speech area.

A person with a hearing loss of Db is severely hard of hearing. A person with a hearing loss of Db is considered moderately hard of hearing Davis, Measured losses of less than 20 Db is considered normal acuity. The onset of the hearing impairment is important for language development and for identification with the deaf community.

A person who was born profoundly deaf or has become deaf at a very early age, i. A person who becomes deaf later in life usually has a good mastery of both spoken and written language before the onset of deafness.

Some deaf people may fall between these two groups. For example, they may become deaf at an early age, but after they have learned to speak, say at years of age, and therefore may not have a full mastery of spoken or written language. For a discussion of telecommunication devices, it is useful to distinguish between deaf people with and without intelligible speech; and between those who can and those who cannot understand speech with amplification.

Although some people with prelingual deafness have intelligible speech, this is more typical of those deaf persons who acquired speech and language skills before the onset of the hearing impairment. For people with profound deafness, speech discrimination may be very limited without lip-reading even when they can hear some sound with the help of a hearing aid.

Written text is closely related to spoken language, and the function of writing is to mirror speech Saussure, Thus, although mastery of spoken language may not be a prerequisite for learning to read, it greatly facilitates the acquisition of reading and writing.

Thus, due to the limited knowledge of spoken language, the written language skills of many prelingually deaf people may often be limited as well cf. Post-lingually deafened people usually have intelligible speech, but because they cannot hear their own voice, their control of volume may be erratic, and they may therefore speak too softly or too loudly.

While they typically have no special problems in the use of written language for, if their hearing impairment was acquired in childhood, vocabulary and other aspects of both spoken and written language use may be adversary influenced, due to more limited experience with spoken language. People of any age may have a mild to severe hearing loss, but the majority will be elderly.

For people who are hard of hearing, speech and hearing remain the main mode of communication, often with the help of a hearing aid. In the case of a severe hearing impairment, however, the person may be dependent on lip reading in addition to using a hearing aid, and for some types of hearing impairment, a hearing aid is of limited help. Furthermore, although many hard-of-hearing people hear speech with the help of amplification, their ability to understand speech may be hindered due to the effect of hearing loss.

The ability to hear is not necessarily equal with the ability to understand what is said. Speech impairment refers to any reduction in a person's ability to use speech in a functional and intelligible way. The impairment may influence speech in a general way, or only certain aspects of it, such as fluency or voice volume. Speech impairment may be due to a number of different factors. It may or may not be linked with difficulties in speech perception or comprehension.

Speech impairment may be caused by developmental problems as in the case of moderate to severe developmental language disorder dysphasia , or by distorted speech due to lack of muscular control dysarthria.

It may be an acquired impairment, for example loss of expressive language skills expressive aphasia caused by a stroke or brain tumour, or speech impairment after removal of the larynx laryngectomy. Acquired disorders are more prevalent with advancing age. When speech impairment is caused by reduced muscular control apraxia , it is often accompanied by reduced muscular control of the arms. Low volume is often apparent in people who have had laryngectomy and who must speak in a "whispering" voice.

The intelligibility of speech may be reduced by varying degrees: speech may be lacking totally or it may be unintelligible even to people who are familiar with the speaker.

In other cases, the speaker may be intelligible to familiar persons, while difficult to understand for others. There may also be situational variation: for example, people who stutter do so in some situations and not in others, depending upon whom they talk to and the communicative load of the situation. This category contains a loss of, or a reduction in, the ability to understand language. The disability may imply only an impairment of language, or it may be associated with a more general intellectual impairment.

Several disorders of the central nervous system may include impairment of language comprehension. In some conditions, like severe developmental language disorder receptive dysphasia , only the language function is affected, while other conditions may influence most intellectual functions. This may, for example, be the case for people with autism.

Impaired language comprehension may be developmental or acquired. In developmental disorders, the impairment of comprehension will also have consequences for the ability of people to express themselves. In some acquired conditions, it is mainly comprehension that is affected while the people are able to express themselves. Many people with limited comprehension may be able to communicate better through the visual modality than through speech. They may use manual signs or special symbol systems e.

Bliss, Rebus , but the vocabulary may be severely limited cf. In the case of people with intellectual impairment, non-verbal modes of instruction may also be affected. Thus, not only communication in itself, but also instruction in the use of different kinds of equipment may be severely hindered.

People with language disorders and a more general intellectual handicap may have some understanding of language but a limited vocabulary and reduced comprehension of sentence structure. The understanding of language may be strongly related to context, which means that comprehension is very dependent on non-linguistic cues, such as the presence of persons or objects, or limited to a small number of well known situations.

Most forms of telecommunication will be hindered because of the limitation in non-linguistic contextual cues. People with reduced intellectual ability constitute a very diverse group with a range of sensory, motor and cognitive impairments; most impairments, including visual and auditory impairment, have a higher incidence in the group that is called intellectually impaired.

One common trait is that they tend to do things slower than other people, another that they have reduced comprehension of instructions and language in general. For the purpose of adapting telecommunication equipment and services, the best strategy may be to consider intellectual impaired people as having multiple impairments see below.

Dyslexia is a disorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and socio-cultural opportunity. It is dependent on fundamental cognitive disabilities, which are frequently of constitutional origin Critchley, The reading impairment may or may not be associated with other language disorders, such as developmental dysphasia and anarthria due to cerebral palsy.

Severe reading disorder may also be an acquired condition similar to aphasia, and is then usually called alexia. A lack of reading skills will be a handicap in a wide range of social and professional situations.

In particular, it will influence the person's ability to obtain information. A reduced function of legs and feet implies dependency on a wheelchair or other mobility aid to help walking e.

Types of Disabilities

Handicap is a social construct. There is a biological sub-stratum, but what it means to be handicapped to others and to oneself is overwhelmingly social and decisively political" Roth, , p. Many different types of impairments and disabilities may have an impact on the use of telecommunications. Knowledge about impairments and disabilities is important to understand possible consequences for the use of telecommunications. It is also a prerequisite for designing and producing standard telecommunications equipment and services that can be used by as many people as possible, and for developing specialised equipment designed to alleviate the negative consequences of a disability.

A disability is any condition of the body or mind impairment that makes it more difficult for the person with the condition to do certain activities activity limitation and interact with the world around them participation restrictions. Two people with the same type of disability can be affected in very different ways. Some disabilities may be hidden or not easy to see. According to the World Health Organization, disability has three dimensions: 1. The ICF provides a standard language for classifying body function and structure, activity, participation levels, and conditions in the world around us that influence health. This description helps to assess the health, functioning, activities, and factors in the environment that either help or create barriers for people to fully participate in society.

Different types of disabilities

Search How to Titles Subjects Organizations. What are the consequences of diseases and accidents? There are many terms in use to describe malfunctions of organ systems, abnormalities in human behaviour, and their effect on individuals and society.

Steven D. Edwards, Ph. Following criticism of this an attempt to salvage the distinction by Nordenfelt , is discussed. It is argued that neither the WHO nor Nordenfelt are successful in their attempts to preserve the distinction between disability and handicap in a theoretically wellmotivated manner. Moreover, the criticisms of these two sets of views reveal that attempts to describe the phenomenon of disablement which focus on the individual suffer from a serious methodological shortcoming.

Carter n. For example Anna was in a car accident in which she lost her right arm. She is impaired, since she has lost her arm and reduced the physical function of her body part.


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Disability and Health Overview

A disability is a societal imposition on people who have impairments, making it more difficult for people to do certain activities or interact with the world around them. Disability is a contested concept , with shifting meanings in different communities. It may also refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society the social model ; or the term may serve to refer to the identity of disabled people. Physiological functional capacity PFC is a measure of an individual's performance level that gauges one's ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed.

Alteration in the nature of morbidity experience poses challenging problems for quantifying the burden of that morbidity. In response to reduction in the relative contribution of acute and life-threatening illnesses, as chronic disorders became more dominant, the World Health Organization WHO commissioned construction of a scheme for classifying information relevant to the consequences of disease; this ultimately led to publication of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps ICIDH; WHO for trial purposes. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available.

Despite all the best efforts at prevention, children may be born with or develop the following disabilities in early childhood, from the causes which are not yet fully understood or could be prevented. The Act covers the following specified disabilities A person with impairment of visual functioning even after treatment or standard refractive correction but who uses or is potentially capable of using vision for the planning or execution of a task with appropriate assistive device. A group of non - progressive conditions characterized by abnormal motor control posture resulting from brain insult or injuries occurring in the peri - natal, neo - natal or infant period of development. Any person who has been cured of leprosy but is suffering from - loss of sensation in hands or feet as well as loss of sensation and paresis in the eye - lid but with no manifest deformity; manifest deformity and paresis but having sufficient mobility in their hands and feet to enable them to engage in normal economic activity; extreme e physical deformity as well as advanced age which prevents him from undertaking any gainful occupation.


  • The International C/rlssification of Impairments, Disabilities. and Handicaps (​ICIDH), developed in the s, was issued by the World Health Organization in​. Vincent M. - 16.05.2021 at 12:40